Reading

Welcome to the learning outcomes of the Primary Language Curriculum.

Here you can navigate the learning outcomes by strand (Oral Language, Reading, Writing, Teanga Ó Bhéal, Léitheoireacht, Scríbhneoireacht) using the menu on the left.

In the tables below, you'll notice that when you hover on a tab number the relevant learning outcome label appears. Once you click on the relevant learning outcome tab, it appears with the associated Examples of Children's Language Learning, Support Materials for teachers and progression steps

  • Communicating
  • Understanding
  • Exploring and using

Engagement

clipboard

Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Attend to, take part in and enjoy listening to reading and talking about the meaning and interpretation of written words and illustrations with others, recognising themselves as readers.

Discover and explore texts in various languages.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Develop their interest in and enjoyment of literature and reading in a variety of genres across the curriculum.

Engage with texts of increasing complexity and discover and explore texts in various languages.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Examples of children's language learning

Progression steps

Previous SlideNext Slide

The child...

listens and attends to a range of reading material.

The child...

enjoys listening to stories and responds to focal points in illustrations.

The child...

enjoys read-aloud activities and talks about illustrations, and reads in play scenarios.

The child...

enjoys read-aloud activities and identifies detail in illustrations and shares interpretation of these, and uses reading more purposefully in play scenarios.

The child...

independently and with others enjoys listening to, reading and exploring a range of genres, and shares their interpretation of meaning held in both illustration and text.

The child...

enjoys exploring a wider range of genres and uses illustrations and text to share predictions and infer meaning.

The child...

enjoys interpreting text and illustration and shares these while listening to and questioning others' interpretations.

The child...

with others, enjoys evaluating texts on areas of interest and information, identifies, interprets and summarises main messages in text and shares these.

The child...

interprets the author's intent through illustration and written words, shares these interpretations and defends their opinion.

The child...

interprets, discusses, and defends opinions on texts.

examines and discusses the enjoyment and purpose of literature and reading.

The child...

engages in discussions and debates about texts.

evaluates own engagement with texts.

discusses and evaluates their role as readers.

Support materials for teachers

Motivation and choice

clipboard

Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Choose, read and communicate about text in a range of genres and languages for pleasure and interest.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Choose, read and communicate about text in a range of genres and languages for pleasure, interest and specific purposes.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Choose, read and critically respond to texts in a range of genres and languages across the curriculum for pleasure, interest and specific purposes.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Examples of children's language learning

Progression steps

Previous SlideNext Slide

The child...

shows a preference for particular reading material.

The child...

looks at books and chooses favourite ones.

The child...

independently and with others, chooses and engages with texts for enjoyment and interest.

The child...

chooses and enjoys favourite books from a range of genres expressing preferences.

The child...

explicitly shares reasons for their book choices.

The child...

can identify and select books of interest that are readable by them.

The child...

chooses books from a range of genres◊ identifying a favourite genre or type of book and shares reasons.

The child...

enjoys sharing experiences with texts on an area of interest, with others and uses key points from texts for a specific purpose.

The child...

chooses and engages with texts for specific purposes and evaluates texts with a purpose/ project in mind.

The child...

confidently selects texts based on own interests, reading ability, and for specific purposes.

identifies texts which will extend reading skills and interests.

The child...

chooses and evaluates texts to facilitate learning across the curriculum.

evaluates the choices made while selecting texts for own reading preference or for a specific purpose.

Support materials for teachers

Conventions of print and sentence structure

clipboard

Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Identify and use basic conventions of print in text.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Use conventions of print and sentence structure to help understand text.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Analyse and compare conventions of print in texts of increasing complexity.

Analyse sentence structures, including simple, compound and complex sentences in texts.

Compare sentence structures and texts in various languages.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Progression steps

Previous SlideNext Slide

The child...

explores books and demonstrates book handling skills.

The child...

recognises and/or identifies that print such as signs, logos, pictures and words carry meaning.

The child...

understands that illustrations in books carry meaning.

The child...

identifies letters as being different from other symbols and reads left to right, top to bottom, page to page and identifies pictures in books.

The child...

demonstrates one-to-one correspondence between written and spoken words, identifies letters, words, sentences, capital letters and full-stops and points out cover, title and author in books.

The child...

uses correct word order when reading and adheres to fullstops to punctuate their reading.

The child...

uses spaces and question marks to punctuate and add intonation to reading.

The child...

uses quotation marks and exclamation marks to punctuate and add intonation to reading.

The child...

uses commas and paragraphs to punctuate and add intonation to reading.

The child...

identifies, names and uses a range of conventions of print in context (for example colon, semicolon, dash, apostrophe, hyphen etc.)

examines and discusses various sentence structures (including simple, compound, and complex sentences) and conventions of print in texts in English, Irish and other languages.

The child...

names, and explains a wide range of conventions of print and discusses their purpose.

evaluates the impact of various sentence structures and conventions of print on a readers’ understanding of text.

Support materials for teachers

Phonological and phonemic awareness

clipboard

Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Play with, recognise and manipulate sounds such as syllables, rhyme, onset-rime and phonemes in spoken words.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Compare sounds and patterns in words found in texts in various genres across the curriculum.

Recognise and compare sounds in words in English, Irish, other languages and across dialects and accents.

  • Toradh Foghlama Icon

Examples of children's language learning

Progression steps

Previous SlideNext Slide

The child...

acknowledges and responds to familiar sounds, rhymes and songs.

The child...

identifies familiar sounds.

listens to and participates in familiar sounds, rhymes and songs.

The child...

completes missing lines in nursery rhymes and recognises sounds of familiar letters. identifies words as sound units within sentences. demonstrates the ability to clap a rhythm.

The child...

identifies and generates rhyming words, recognising onset-rime.

distinguishes between two spoken sounds. demonstrates an awareness of changes in sounds of words.

The child...

blends onset rime and counts, pronounces, segments and blends syllables in spoken words.

identifies initial, terminal and medial sounds in words of three phonemes and segments and blends spoken words of two, three, four and five phonemes.

The child...

divides words into their onset-rime and reproduces common letter patterns and groups.

verbally segments spoken single and multi-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds. verbally deletes and substitutes individual sounds to make new words.

recognises consonant/vowel sound patterns in syllables of spoken words.

The child...

uses syllables in new words heard to divide and blend.

recognises that some words contain silent sounds which are not spoken.

The child...

breaks new words into syllables, with confidence.

identifies and discusses sounds and patterns in words in English, Irish and other languages.

The child...

breaks words into syllables and uses their knowledge of consonants and vowel sounds to recognise and blend them verbally.

recognises patterns in spoken words and uses knowledge of existing words to segment and blend new words.

The child...

uses knowledge of patterns and sounds to decipher words found in subject/topic specific content.

The child...

examines and discusses sounds and patterns in a wider range of words in English, Irish and other languages.

uses knowledge of patterns and sounds to decipher words in subject/topic specific texts.

Support materials for teachers

Phonics, word recognition, and word study

clipboard

Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Recognise, name and sound all lower- and upper-case letters and common letter patterns, displaying some word-identification strategies when reading instructional and independent-level texts.

    Use phonic knowledge and a range of word identification strategies with flexibility and confidence when reading instructional and independent-level texts.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Use a range of word identification strategies flexibly and with confidence when reading instructional and independent-level texts across the curriculum.

    Use existing language skills and knowledge to decipher text in other languages.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Examples of children's language learning

    Progression steps

    Previous SlideNext Slide

    The child...

    explores sign, symbol and word recognition.

    The child...

    recognises some letters from own name.

    identifies signs, symbols and words.

    The child...

    recognises and names familiar letters such as those in own name and in the immediate environment, and recognises some personal and other familiar words.

    links familiar printed signs or names to objects or people. recognises some similarities and/or differences between a pair of pictures/ objects.

    The child...

    recognises, names and sounds some lower-case and upper-case letters and begins to blend phonemes.

    recognises a few high-frequency words in familiar contexts and uses one or two letters, often first and last, to identify other words. uses pictorial cues to read some words.

    The child...

    names and sounds all lower- and upper-case letters, recognises short vowel sounds, blends phonemes and recognises some common letter patterns.

    reads a range of high-frequency words and CVC words, and reads short, simple sentences. uses cues from pictures and from sentences to read.

    The child...

    recognises some digraphs and blends and reads words containing short and long vowel sounds.

    uses their knowledge of sight-words, letter patterns, sounds and cues from surrounding text to read words and uses some word identification strategies with growing confidence.

    begins to distinguish between letter sound relationships in L1 and L2.

    The child...

    deletes, adds and substitutes letters to create and identify words,

    recognises similar sounds from different letter combinations and reads a range of words with digraphs, letter patterns and some with consonant and vowel digraphs.

    uses their knowledge of syllables, prior knowledge and cues from the context to read words and uses a growing range of word identification strategies with confidence.

    identifies similarities in letter-sound relationships in L1 and L2.

    The child...

    reads increasingly demanding digraphs, letter patterns and consonant and vowel digraphs and uses phonological skills flexibly.

    uses a range of word identification strategies flexibly and confidently to identify words.

    identifies some differences in letter sound relationships in L1 and L2.

    The child...

    uses their knowledge of letter sequences, digraphs, root words, syllables, silent letters, prefixes and suffixes to identify a wider range of words.

    identifies relationships in L1 and L2.

    The child...

    identifies and discusses vocabulary that is similar in English, Irish, and other languages.

    analyses and discusses the origins of words from a range of subject areas.

    The child...

    assesses a wide range of word identification strategies used while reading texts.

    uses existing knowledge of language to decipher texts in other languages.

    Support materials for teachers

    Vocabulary

    clipboard

    Stage 1

    Junior and Senior Infants
    Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 2

    First and Second class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 3

    Third and Fourth class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 4

    Fifth and Sixth class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Acquire appropriate vocabulary to support the comprehension of text shared by the teacher or read independently.

    Talk about and use new vocabulary as it arises, drawing on context and identifying words with similar meaning and words with similar sounds but different meaning.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Acquire appropriate vocabulary to support the independent comprehension of text.

    Draw on a developing knowledge of word structure and word parts, including some prefixes and suffixes, to clarify and discuss the meaning of words.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Acquire deep and broad vocabulary knowledge to facilitate independent comprehension of texts, to include subject-specific texts.

    Draw on an increasing knowledge of word structure and word parts, including prefixes, suffixes and root words, to independently uncover the meaning of words encountered in texts. Use knowledge of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, homographs and homophones to clarify and discuss the meaning of new and known vocabulary.

    Use appropriate reference materials to independently uncover the meaning of unknown words.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Progression steps

    Previous SlideNext Slide

    The child...

    listens to new words and phrases represented by text, modelled by another.

    The child...

    listens to new words and phrases represented by text, modelled by another, and uses them in emerging reading.

    The child...

    acquires new vocabulary listening to a variety of texts read aloud and repeats new words and phrases in their emerging reading.

    The child...

    acquires new vocabulary listening to new words and phrases modelled by the teacher and begins to demonstrate some understanding.

    The child...

    acquires new words and phrases from a variety of instructional and independent level texts and the teacher, and talks about their meaning. uses some new words in responses to texts.

    The child...

    uses a range of strategies to understand and discuss new words in texts and understands that the same idea can be conveyed using different phrases.

    explores words that have the same meaning and words that have the same sound but a different meaning.

    The child...

    identifies and uses new words and phrases appropriately in a variety of contexts and begins to use dictionaries to find word meanings.

    recognises some synonyms, homonyms, antonyms, prefixes, suffixes and root words.

    The child...

    uses dictionaries and other references to find word meanings.

    flexibly uses a range of strategies including knowledge of synonyms, homonyms, antonyms, affixes and root words to understand unfamiliar words.

    The child...

    uses thesauruses and other references to find and use word meanings across the curriculum.

    The child...

    identifies and explains synonyms, homonyms, antonyms, prefixes, suffixes, and root words found in texts.

    The child...

    identifies and uses a variety of strategies to understand words in texts.

    Support materials for teachers

    Purpose, genre, and voice

    clipboard

    Stage 1

    Junior and Senior Infants
    Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 2

    First and Second class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 3

    Third and Fourth class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 4

    Fifth and Sixth class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Experience and respond to the aesthetic, creative, and imaginative aspects of text and a range of genres expressing preferences and opinions.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Experience and respond to the aesthetic, creative and imaginative aspects of texts and a wider range of genres justifying preferences and opinions.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Identify and discuss features of texts which convey a particular purpose, genre, or voice and infer meanings which are not explicitly stated.

    Respond to the aesthetic, creative, and imaginative aspects of a wide range of texts in various genres across the curriculum and defend their preferences and opinions.

    • Toradh Foghlama Icon

    Recognise and examine the implications of culture and identity on the creation of texts across a range of genres.

    Critically reflect on their response to the aesthetic, creative, and imaginative aspects of a wide range of texts in various genres across the curriculum.

      Progression steps

      Previous SlideNext Slide

      The child...

      recognises the link between text and the meaning it conveys.

      The child...

      enjoys listening to stories, rhymes and poems read by others, and indicates favourites.

      The child...

      enjoys listening to different genres◊ expressing preferences and opinions and plays with language in rhymes, riddles, jokes, nonsense words and songs.

      The child...

      enjoys listening to and responding to a variety of genres◊ including informational texts and uses language playfully and imaginatively in personal narratives.

      shows understanding of purpose of reading, for example, in play scenarios.

      The child...

      enjoys reading a range of stories, rhymes, poems and non-fictional texts and begins to distinguish between a story and a poem or rhyme.

      The child...

      enjoys reading a wide range of fictional and nonfictional texts and describing differences.

      between stories, poems and nonfictional texts, and uses language playfully and imaginatively in response to texts read.

      The child...

      begins to read texts for specific purposes, identifying some differences between genres◊ and begins to justify preferences and opinions.

      begins to use a table of contents in simple nonfictional texts to gather information.

      The child...

      reads texts for specific purposes and justifies preferences and opinions.

      uses lists and diagrams in simple nonfictional texts to gather specific information.

      The child...

      selects relevant information from a range of features of non-fictional texts and recognises emotive language in texts read.

      The child...

      examines and discusses the validity of sources used to create texts.

      identifies and describes features of texts which highlight individual voice.

      discusses and explains the purpose of texts.

      examines and discusses how Irish culture and identity are portrayed in texts.

      The child...

      Evaluates the validity of sources to create texts.

      evaluates and reflects on features of texts which highlight individual voices.

      examines and discusses how different cultures and identities are portrayed in texts.

      examines and evaluates a variety of opinions, perspectives, and cultures across various genres.

      examines and discusses bias, stereotyping and prejudice portrayed in texts.

      Support materials for teachers

      Response and author’s intent

      clipboard

      Stage 1

      Junior and Senior Infants
      Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 2

      First and Second class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 3

      Third and Fourth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 4

      Fifth and Sixth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Discuss and share thoughts and opinions on texts in a range of genres across the curriculum. Consider and discuss author’s intent.

      • Toradh Foghlama Icon

      Compare, contrast and critically reflect on the intent of different authors and discuss various interpretations of text in a wide range of genres.

        Examples of children's language learning

        Progression steps

        Previous SlideNext Slide

        The child...

        responds to a range of texts.

        The child...

        responds to a range of texts, indicating preferences.

        The child...

        expresses some thoughts and feelings about what has been read in a variety of ways.

        The child...

        expresses thoughts and feelings about what has been read and identifies the main idea from the text.

        The child...

        expresses thoughts, feelings and opinions in relation to a text and gives reasons for their opinions based on the information provided in the text.

        The child...

        begins to identify, with support and direction, the author’s intent and discusses the point of view being presented in a text.

        Begins to use evidence from the text to support their views.

        The child...

        expresses personal opinions about texts and about the ideas presented in texts.

        identifies the author’s point of view presented in a text. Uses evidence from the text to support their views.

        The child...

        explains their understanding and interpretation of a text, justifying their responses logically, referring to evidence in the text and discussing the author’s intent and point of view.

        The child...

        interprets and discusses texts, exploring the ways in which the author can use and manipulate language in order to create effect or to engage/affect the reader.

        reconsiders an initial response to a text in light of subsequent information that emerges in a text.

        The child...

        conveys personal interpretation of text.

        recognises the influence of an author’s identity on messages being conveyed.

        discusses and evaluates viewpoints and messages of different texts on the same topic.

        The child...

        evaluates the influence of the reader’s prior knowledge and own identity on interpretation of texts.

        assesses the link between the author’s intent and the language register chosen.

        Support materials for teachers

        Comprehension

        clipboard

        Stage 1

        Junior and Senior Infants
        Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

        Stage 2

        First and Second class
        Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

        Stage 3

        Third and Fourth class
        Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

        Stage 4

        Fifth and Sixth class
        Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

        Recall, discuss and sequence significant details and identify key points of information in text.

        • Toradh Foghlama Icon

        Compare and select comprehension strategies flexibly and interchangeably and use background knowledge to engage with text in a variety of genres independently or collaboratively.

          Choose, justify, and apply comprehension strategies to engage with text in a variety of genres across the curriculum, independently or collaboratively, and continue to draw on background knowledge.

          Compare and synthesise information, thoughts, and ideas from a variety of text sources.

            Draw on background knowledge as well as a range of comprehension strategies to engage with and create meaning when working with a range of texts independently or collaboratively.

            • Toradh Foghlama Icon

            Draw on a repertoire of comprehension strategies and background knowledge to comprehend text independently or collaboratively.

            • Toradh Foghlama Icon

            Examples of children's language learning

            Progression steps

            Previous SlideNext Slide

            The child...

            demonstrates understanding of one or more signs, symbols or text for enjoyment or practical purposes.

            The child...

            sequences a story read or a personal experience using 2-3 objects, marks, drawings or mimes.

            finds specific objects in stories read to them and responds nonverbally and/or verbally to simple statements and questions about a main event or character.

            The child...

            sequences main events using a small number of pictures.

            predicts a story based on the front cover and internal illustrations before and during the teacher’s reading of it and makes inferences.

            makes connections between points in a story while listening to the teacher read.

            responds nonverbally and/or verbally to simple stories and poems and asks and answers questions about main events and characters.

            The child...

            begins to determine the importance of information and retells main points of a story in sequence.

            predicts the story/topic based on title while drawing on their prior knowledge and visualises while listening to the teacher read a story or informational text.

            retells familiar stories accurately using key details and asks questions about events, characters and setting.

            shows some understanding of informational texts read aloud by the teacher.

            The child...

            listens to stories, poems and informational texts and retells main points with some sequencing.

            modifies predictions based on new information and draws inferences while listening to stories or informational text.

            recounts orally key points of information in expository text

            with others, reads and discusses stories, poems, simple instructions, and informational texts showing understanding.

            demonstrates the ability to visualise the story while listening to it, through their modified predictions and inferences during the story and in their retelling of the story.

            The child...

            uses language from texts to retell main points along with characters and setting in sequence and adds key details from the texts.

            shows knowledge of the structure of a range of narrative and procedural text genres and identifies the central idea or theme of a text.

            takes part in class discussion while responding to narrative and expository text, asks questions, discusses predictions and inferences and clarifies their reasons.

            with help, uses simple graphic organisers to identify key points in expository texts.

            The child...

            uses language from text to retell main events adding key details.

            generates and responds to questions on text in a range of genres◊, clarifies their responses and provides justifications drawing on prior knowledge.

            uses some text features such as table of contents and sub-headings, to identify key points of information in text and adds supporting detail using an appropriate graphic organiser.

            discusses miscomprehension in a text.

            The child...

            summarises key points from a range of genres determining their importance and omitting any unnecessary information and sequences main points while reflecting on and making sense of information and adding detail.

            responds to questions disregarding unnecessary information, infers drawing on prior knowledge and information and cites specific textual evidence to clarify their responses and to support a particular viewpoint.

            uses text features such as indexes to locate key facts and information.

            uses a range of comprehension strategies flexibly and confidently.

            The child...

            determines importance of information and justifies disregarding of unnecessary information when summarising key points/facts and reflects on and synthesises information.

            shows some understanding that language features, images and vocabulary shape interpretation of text and that this may be different to others’ interpretations.

            uses text features including bold print, glossaries, electronic menus and icons to locate key facts in a variety of genres efficiently.

            questions actions and sequences and accuracy of content.

            The child...

            examines and discusses how various media sources present information on the same event/story.

            identifies how language, images, and vocabulary shape interpretation of text.

            desrcibes and explains the strategies used to locate key facts and sources.

            The child...

            discusses and evaluates how language, images, vocabulary, sources, presentation, culture, and identity can shape interpretation of text.

            synthesises information from various sources and formats and uses this information to form opinions about various topics.

            Support materials for teachers

            Fluency and self-correction

            clipboard

            Stage 1

            Junior and Senior Infants
            Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 2

            First and Second class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 3

            Third and Fourth class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 4

            Fifth and Sixth class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Read instructional and independent-level texts in a range of genres with reasonable pace and understanding, and self-correct independently.

            • Toradh Foghlama Icon

            Read texts in a variety of genres effortlessly with appropriate pace, accuracy and expression for a variety of audiences.

              Progression steps

              Previous SlideNext Slide

              The child...

              participates in using reading material.

              The child...

              handles books and takes part in group activities with familiar text begins to track the direction of reading with their eyes, attending to each page change in books read to them by others.

              The child...

              understands that text tells the same story each time it is read. tracks the direction of reading with their eyes, attending to lines read in books read to them by others.

              The child...

              recognises when a word has been omitted or read incorrectly in repetitive familiar text read to them. begins to track pictures and words using their finger or object.

              The child...

              shows a reasonable pace reading repetitive language patterns and some familiar sight vocabulary.

              reads text word by word tracking with finger or object and rereads familiar or independent-level text supported by illustrations, building fluency.

              self-corrects using pictorial, sound, visual and contextual cues.

              The child...

              tracks words in text read with their eyes. reads text at instructional and independent levels with good pace, phrasing, expression and understanding.

              recognises when a line or word is lost and self-corrects using syntactical cues.

              The child...

              maintains a reasonable pace reading text with support from more complex repetitive language patterns, sight vocabulary, common letter patterns and initial sound cues.

              The child...

              maintains a reasonable pace with decodable text using phonic knowledge, sight vocabulary and common letter patterns, and rarely loses their place.

              The child...

              maintains appropriate pace and accuracy with lengthier and more complex unfamiliar text using expression and intonation while drawing on a range of phonic, sight and context cues when unknown words are encountered.

              The child...

              maintains appropriate pace and accuracy using intonation and expression for the genre and audience.

              The child...

              Evaluates and adapts intonation, expression and pace used while reading.

              Support materials for teachers