Oral Language

Welcome to the learning outcomes of the Primary Language Curriculum.

Here you can navigate the learning outcomes by strand (Oral Language, Reading, Writing, Teanga Ó Bhéal, Léitheoireacht, Scríbhneoireacht) using the menu on the left.

In the tables below, you'll notice that when you hover on a tab number the relevant learning outcome label appears. Once you click on the relevant learning outcome tab, it appears with the associated Examples of Children's Language Learning, Support Materials for teachers and progression steps

  • Communicating
  • Understanding
  • Exploring and using

Engagement, listening and attention Translation Icon

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Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Show interest in, demonstrate joint attention and actively listen and attend for enjoyment and for a particular purpose.

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Recognise themselves as listeners and speakers, engaging purposefully and empathetically with others.

Express their individuality through their knowledge and use of various languages.

Actively listen and extract meaning and enjoyment from conversations and texts in a range of genres and where possible, in various languages.

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Actively listen and attend for extended periods of time, to include other languages where appropriate, listening for more detail and nuanced meanings.

Evaluate how the purpose, situation and audience/listener influence the speaker’s register, dialect and accent.

      Examples of children's language learning

      Progression steps

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      The child...

      attends to stimuli in the environment.

      tracks movement of stimuli.

      The child...

      engages with stimuli.

      keeps eye gaze and tracks adult’s gaze to participate in activities requiring joint attention.

      imitates actions and sounds.

      The child...

      attends for longer to interesting or familiar stimuli including: actions, gestures, tone of voice, conversations and stories read aloud, and joins in with rhymes, songs and games.

      The child...

      takes part in conversation using appropriate eye-contact while attending to body language, gestures and tone of voice and uses these cues with context to understand new words/phrases.

      listens to factual accounts.

      The child...

      listens to new information on an unshared experience including fiction and non-fiction of increasing complexity.

      listens to an adult modelling a new language where many words may be unknown.

      The child...

      listens to definitions and descriptions using tone, gestures and a few understood words to interpret main messages.

      attends to textually presented information (books, audio etc).

      The child...

      attends to verbal and non-verbal communication in a variety of contexts and listens to unfamiliar people speaking and modelling new words/phrases attending to the correct pronunciation of same

      The child...

      gains insight from listening to new information on a wide range of subjects

      The child...

      listens to information being presented from both sides of an argument

      The child...

      listens carefully to others, interjecting with questions, insights and opinions when appropriate

      further develops their listening skills by engaging with oral texts

      listens for and discusses the impact of culture, identity, situation, purpose and audience/listener on how people communicate

      The child...

      embraces and evaluates own and others’ individual style of listening and speaking.

      Motivation and choice Translation Icon

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      Stage 1

      Junior and Senior Infants
      Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 2

      First and Second class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 3

      Third and Fourth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 4

      Fifth and Sixth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Choose, listen to, respond to and create texts in a range of genres, and in other languages where appropriate, across the curriculum for pleasure and interest.

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      Choose, listen to, critically respond to and create texts in a range of genres and in other languages where appropriate, across the curriculum for pleasure, interest and specific purposes.

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      Examples of children's language learning

      Progression steps

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      The child...

      responds to text(s) using facial expressions, vocalisations, movements and/or gestures

      The child...

      demonstrates interest in and/or enjoyment from texts using facial expressions, vocalisations and gestures

      The child...

      listens to texts and takes part in conversations with others on topics of interest and personal choice using multi-word utterances and basic sentences.

      The child...

      initiates a conversation with others and chooses texts to listen to for enjoyment and based on personal interests.

      The child...

      identifies a purpose for listening based on personal interests and sets personal goals for listening, with support e.g. to gain information on a topic of interest.

      The child...

      chooses to join in or take part in a conversation based on personal interests, in pairs or in groups. Listens to chosen texts for enjoyment and interest and expresses preferences.

      The child...

      identifies a variety of purposes for creating texts, listening to texts and for engaging in conversations based on personal interests.

      The child...

      initiates and sustains conversations on topics of personal interest.

      chooses, listens to and creates texts to for a specific purpose.

      The child...

      creates, chooses and engages with texts for specific purposes and evaluates these texts with a purpose in mind.

      The child...

      creates and chooses texts, based on own interests and for specific purposes.

      identifies aural/oral texts which will extend vocabulary, knowledge and interests.

      The child...

      chooses and evaluates aural/oral texts to facilitate learning across the curriculum.

      evaluates the choices made while selecting aural/oral texts for a listening preference or for a specific purpose.

      Social conventions and awareness of others Translation Icon

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      Stage 1

      Junior and Senior Infants
      Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 2

      First and Second class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 3

      Third and Fourth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 4

      Fifth and Sixth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Recognise that language style changes with different relationships and audiences.

      Show understanding of the listener’s needs while, with support, initiating, sustaining and engaging in conversations on personal and curriculum-based topics and responding verbally and nonverbally.

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      Use language appropriately in order to initiate, sustain and engage in conversations on personal and curriculum-based topics and use a language style and tone suited to the audience.

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      Use language flexibly and with empathy while initiating, sustaining and engaging in conversations on personal and curriculum-based topics.

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      Explore how culture and identity can influence how people communicate with others, verbally and non-verbally.

      Listen and speak with increasing confidence, independence and skill in order to work collaboratively with others and to share feedback, ideas, decisions and outcomes in a range of contexts with familiar and unfamiliar audiences.

        Use language with confidence to work collaboratively with others and share outcomes with familiar and unfamiliar audiences.

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        Adapt language style such as tone, pace, choice of vocabulary, gestures, facial expressions and body language for a range of audiences whilst communicating orally in a range of genres.

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          Examples of children's language learning

          Progression steps

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          The child...

          tolerates and acknowledges the presence of another.

          accepts an interaction with another

          The child...

          responds to and seeks adult attention.

          recognises, responds to and says own name.

          engages with another to communicate, using facial expressions, sounds, gestures, signs or speech.

          The child...

          takes part in imitative and turn-taking games, rhymes and songs.

          speaks audibly and coherently at appropriate volume, interacting over a short number of turns with individuals and beginning to communicate readily with others in class.

          initiates communication with familiar adult.

          The child...

          shares personal anecdotes and responds to conversation on an unshared experience.

          greets and responds appropriately to greetings and discussion topics showing some appreciation of listener’s needs.

          initiates and takes turns in conversation with peers, small groups and familiar adults.

          The child...

          initiates conversations on an unshared experience.

          responds to questions but omits some information and begins to make indirect requests.

          switches style of speaking to suit audience.

          takes part in small group discussions on a familiar topic showing awareness of listener-speaker rules and is able to list these.

          The child...

          uses appropriate turn-taking, eye contact and body language to contribute to and extend a topic, to build a coherent story or factual account.

          converses on thoughts and feelings of others and takes part in conversation with an unfamiliar adult adopting appropriate language, style and tone.

          works in pairs/ groups and participates in and builds upon a group discussion.

          The child...

          adds increased detail for benefit of the listener and uses gestures, expressions and signs where appropriate.

          recognises the impact of gestures, tone of voice and body language on listeners.

          works in pairs / groups and reports the main points of discussion to an audience.

          The child...

          provides enough detail to help the listener understand the context.

          works as part of a group, establishing each person’s role and adapting to it.

          The child...

          presents relevant ideas, organised coherently and omits unnecessary detail.

          makes polite indirect requests and uses a range of formal and informal terms of address.

          gathers feedback from others in their group on a group project on an unfamiliar area and reports the main points to an audience.

          The child...

          adapts style of listening and speaking to a variety of situations and genres, using social conventions effectively.

          recognises and responds to cultural and individual differences in how people communicate.

          communicates with peers when making decisions and sharing responsibilities during project or task work.

          interacts with the audience/listener to clarify and/or to provide more detail as requested.

          The child...

          adapts style of listening and speaking to respond empathetically, as necessary, to a variety of audiences/listeners for a range of purposes.

          works interdependently within the group, recognises constructive feedback, responds critically and creatively when discussing the project or task and when adapting and developing it to present to an audience / listener(s).

          Sentence structure and grammar

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          Stage 1

          Junior and Senior Infants
          Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 2

          First and Second class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 3

          Third and Fourth class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 4

          Fifth and Sixth class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Use coherent sentences of increasing complexity with correct tense, word order and sentence structure, while using connectives and producing compound and complex sentences to elaborate appropriately.

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          Vary sentence length and structure, moving fluidly between a range of sentence types; simple, compound and complex, as appropriate to audience, purpose and language being spoken.

          Use grammar conventions appropriately and identify differences in sentence structure and grammar across languages and dialects.

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          Progression steps

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          The child...

          uses single vocalisations in response to stimuli

          The child...

          uses one or more words and short common phrases when imitating or chorusing with another

          The child...

          uses multi-word vocalisations, short common phrases and basic sentences when imitating or chorusing with another.

          The child...

          uses complete basic sentences and speaks audibly and with clear articulation as appropriate to developmental stage. uses some basic connectives to begin to join short sentences.

          completes familiar rhymes and repeats short rhymes.

          The child...

          uses lengthier sentences with correct word order for the most part, basic connectives and uses plurals and simple pronouns.

          mostly places the verb in the correct place in the sentence.

          The child...

          uses past, present and future tenses in lengthier and more complex sentences while self-correcting.

          uses prefixes and both subject and object pronouns correctly.

          The child...

          flexibly uses appropriate tenses, affixes and reflexive pronouns and clearly articulates multi-syllabic words.

          uses less common adjectives and lengthier connectives to elaborate.

          The child...

          uses qualifiers to elaborate sentences.

          uses less frequently used connectives.

          The child...

          use a range of less familiar adverbial conjunctions and pronouns correctly and use clauses and qualifiers to support answers.

          increasingly speaks hypothetically using ‘if’ and ‘so’ clauses.

          The child...

          demonstrates an understanding of the impact of varying types and lengths of sentences when listening and speaking.

          uses functions of grammar effectively (for example, relative pronouns and adjectives, clauses, qualifiers, modifiers and connectives) to communicate simple and complex ideas, including proposing, hypothesising and theorising.

          The child...

          demonstrates understanding that sentence structure and grammar conventions are less rigid in spoken (as opposed to written) language and vary depending on the audience, purpose and language being spoken.

          selects language and structures most suited to the purpose, audience/listener and language being spoken.

          Vocabulary

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          Stage 1

          Junior and Senior Infants
          Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 2

          First and Second class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 3

          Third and Fourth class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 4

          Fifth and Sixth class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Use different strategies such as a speaker’s gestures, tone of voice, known words, pictures, sentence structure, definitions and descriptions to acquire and show understanding of new words, to include other languages where appropriate.

          Use sophisticated oral vocabulary and phrases, including the language of text, topic and subject-specific language, and express and use decontextualised language.

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          Select and apply a variety of strategies to acquire a wide range of words and phrases from different sources such as literature, subject-specific texts and other languages.

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          Critically select and use a wide-ranging, complex oral vocabulary, phrases and figurative language for familiar, abstract and subject-specific concepts and topics, as appropriate to audience and purpose.

            Progression steps

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            The child...

            recognises named stimuli.

            The child...

            links associated language with stimuli.

            The child...

            uses single words and common phrases and understands common pronouns and prepositions.

            begins to describe properties of familiar objects and, with help, uses words and phrases from a story when retelling it.

            The child...

            uses a wider range of single words and short, simple sentences.

            requests objects and recurrence or change in activity, uses question words appropriately and uses greetings, farewells, and protests.

            understands vocabulary and phrases from a range of stories and factual accounts and uses these words and phrases appropriately in context.

            The child...

            infers the meaning of a new word by using gestures and context and infers the meaning of stories of increasing depth from context.

            uses words or phrases to refer to feelings.

            uses words and phrases acquired from stories and factual accounts in contexts beyond that in which they were originally acquired.

            The child...

            uses words for objects never seen and acquires new vocabulary through others’ descriptions.

            uses specific language for spatial, temporal and location contexts along with basic adjectives and adverbs and uses a range of question words appropriately.

            understands and uses an expanding vocabulary of words and phrases from stories, factual texts and curriculum-based topics and begins to use these words in new contexts.

            The child...

            uses an expanded vocabulary, acquired from texts and explains the meaning of a word and topic-specific term.

            refers to events in the future and begins to use figurative language begins to use lengthier adjectives / adverbs to elaborate along with some simple idioms and metaphors.

            The child...

            uses words to convey less familiar meanings and recognises when words are used that sound the same but have a different meaning, using context to differentiate.

            describes objects and experiences using descriptive language creatively.

            The child...

            uses more figurative idioms and metaphors and a range of less commonly used adverbial conjunctions.

            uses more complex words and links these to more abstract concepts and meanings.

            names words with the same and opposite meanings.

            The child...

            discusses various strategies used to source, learn and acquire new vocabulary from a range of sources whilst listening and speaking.

            analyses and discusses the structure, meaning, pronunciation and origin of words from a range of subject areas and other languages.

            uses vocabulary to create a particular effect when conversing and when speaking in a range of oral genres and for a variety of purposes and audiences, recognising the literal and non-literal meaning of words and how to communicate meaning through tone, facial expressions etc.

            The child...

            draws upon existing vocabulary to decipher words and phrases in unknown languages.

            recognises and appreciates differences between subjective and objective language and demonstrates this understanding in conversations and when selecting vocabulary to create spoken texts.

            recognises vocabulary which portrays prejudice, stereotyping or bias and is mindful of this whilst listening and speaking.

            Demonstration of understanding

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            Stage 1

            Junior and Senior Infants
            Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 2

            First and Second class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 3

            Third and Fourth class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 4

            Fifth and Sixth class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Demonstrate understanding through the ability to give and follow instructions, comprehend texts and clearly state a case.

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            Demonstrate understanding by listening actively to, understanding, analysing and responding appropriately to conversations and texts in a range of genres and across other languages where appropriate.

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            Demonstrate understanding by listening actively to, analysing, comparing and evaluating conversations and texts in a range of genres and across other languages where appropriate.

              Respond creatively and critically to what they have heard and experienced.

                Progression steps

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                The child...

                identifies cues used to support instructions and/or routines.

                The child...

                recognises and responds to own name and other familiar words.

                The child...

                follows one-step instructions and shows understanding in a variety of contexts by attempting to imitate what they have seen and heard.

                The child...

                responds to familiar questions and follows one- to twostep instructions.

                shows understanding of familiar story content, characters and vocabulary, and of factual accounts and step-by-step processes.

                The child...

                listens to fiction and non-fiction of increasing complexity and begins to infer meaning from context.

                can follow three step instructions and respond appropriately to phrases used regularly in the school environment.

                The child...

                asks and responds to a wider range of questions and responds to instructions with more than three steps.

                The child...

                responds to a series of instructions, containing a variety of clauses and concepts.

                The child...

                analyses and reflects on a topic with others, recognising there are multiple dimensions and responds to and gives a series of complex instructions.

                The child...

                analyses information prior to responding, disregarding unnecessary information.

                The child...

                listens to and analyses conversations and aural texts.

                paraphrases, reflects on and reframes what has been heard, identifying the genre and purpose of texts; the main ideas and how they are sequenced; and the register and techniques used uses what they have heard to inform their own creation of texts.

                The child...

                compares and evaluates conversations and aural texts, reflecting on the effect of the language, ideas, register and techniques used on the audience/listener(s).

                infers meanings which are not explicitly stated.

                uses aesthetic features of aural language (for example rhymes, puns, alliteration, assonance, sound effects, music) in their own conversations and texts.

                Requests, questions and interactions

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                Stage 1

                Junior and Senior Infants
                Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

                Stage 2

                First and Second class
                Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                Stage 3

                Third and Fourth class
                Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                Stage 4

                Fifth and Sixth class
                Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                Express personal needs, opinions and preferences, and make requests with confidence.

                Ask and answer a variety of open and closed questions to seek help, get information, develop understanding, clarify and extend thinking.

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                Express personal needs, opinions and preferences, explaining and justifying their perspective.

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                Ask and answer a variety of questions – open, closed, leading, rhetorical – for a range of purposes, such as exploring and discussing texts; clarifying and extending thinking; comparing views and opinions; interviewing, speculating, arguing and persuading.

                  Select how and when it is appropriate to ask and answer a wide range of question types; open, closed, leading and rhetorical, for an increasing range of complex purposes.

                    Progression steps

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                    The child...

                    indicates likes, dislikes, wants and needs.

                    The child...

                    makes requests verbally or non-verbally.

                    The child...

                    makes simple choices and requests and asks simple questions. requests objects and events verbally and makes clear self-directed choices, requesting repetition, change of objects or events.

                    The child...

                    with support, engages with an unfamiliar adult to give or request information or recall an event. asks and responds to familiar questions.

                    The child...

                    asks questions to clarify others’ thoughts or actions, and to gain new information and get help.

                    uses complete sentences to express personal needs and asks and responds to speculative questions leading to drawing inferences.

                    The child...

                    uses language confidently to refer to their own and third parties’ thoughts. uses open and closed questions and states reasons for personal requests.

                    The child...

                    invites and responds to questions on their news and information and elaborates on reasons for personal requests.

                    The child...

                    explains and justifies their responses.

                    The child...

                    questions new information presented and defends their position and presents a case for a personal need or request.

                    The child...

                    analyses and clearly expresses personal needs, opinions and preferences, whilst being open to alternative views and perspectives, including those from other cultures.

                    examines and discusses different question types; recognises that questions are asked in a variety of ways and adapts their questioning to suit their purpose.

                    The child...

                    reflects on feedback in relation to their personal needs, opinions, preferences and biases, evaluating and adjusting their perspective, if necessary.

                    analyses and interprets their own and others questions, to inform further questioning and responses.

                    frames questions effectively and asks them at chosen moments, to achieve a clear purpose.

                    Categorisation

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                    Stage 1

                    Junior and Senior Infants
                    Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 2

                    First and Second class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 3

                    Third and Fourth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 4

                    Fifth and Sixth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Name, describe and categorise people, objects, experiences and concepts of increasing complexity, demonstrating growing depth of knowledge and improved understanding.

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                    Explain and justify categorisation, across the curriculum, as appropriate, and demonstrate understanding that categories are fluid and can vary.

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                    Progression steps

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                    The child...

                    explores a selection of items that form a group

                    The child...

                    attends to familiar toys and objects

                    The child...

                    names familiar toys and objects.

                    The child...

                    categorises familiar objects in the environment

                    The child...

                    categorises a range of objects.

                    The child...

                    explains reasons for category membership.

                    The child...

                    gives reasons for category membership and exclusion

                    The child...

                    describes and categorises unexperienced objects and events using appropriate language to topic to explain categorisation

                    The child...

                    describes and categorises unfamiliar objects, events and experiences explaining meaning and showing knowledge of an unexperienced topic or subject

                    The child...

                    analyses and explains how and why categories are formed

                    uses categories across the curriculum for example, in relation to vocabulary to organise their thinking and to identify and verbalise similarities and differences

                    The child...

                    re-constructs categories depending on new criteria, appraising and justifying their new categories

                    Evaluates the pros and cons of using categories to organise their thinking

                    Retelling and elaboration

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                    Stage 1

                    Junior and Senior Infants
                    Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 2

                    First and Second class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 3

                    Third and Fourth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 4

                    Fifth and Sixth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Tell and retell imaginative stories and narratives of increasing complexity to familiar and unfamiliar audiences using appropriate sequencing, tense and oral vocabulary.

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                    Create narratives and retell stories and events, both real and imaginary, for various audiences, using imaginative and figurative language, elaborating where appropriate.

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                    Examples of children's language learning

                    Progression steps

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                    The child...

                    participates in story telling activities

                    The child...

                    with help, participates in singing songs, reciting rhymes, retelling stories, providing accounts, and presenting objects and news

                    The child...

                    with help, shares a familiar or personalfamiliar or personal story, activity or event using single or multiple words.

                    The child...

                    exchanges information on a shared experience.

                    with help, identifies main characters and sequences main points in a narrative.

                    constructs a story drawing on experiences and orally narrates to a group with support.

                    gives an account from direct experience sequencing up to three key events.

                    The child...

                    retells the main points of an unshared event or conversation using a clear structure to an audience of peers.

                    creates a short story, identifying main characters and events and tells main points of their own news.

                    retells a familiar story sequencing key events.

                    explains a factual account from direct experience to a group, introduces a topic, outlines and describes processes.

                    The child...

                    sequences events of own news in the correct order and responds to questions on it.

                    names and describes a problem giving main details and possible solutions. retells a wider range of events in the past, present and future and predicts outcomes.

                    The child...

                    uses more narrative plots

                    retells stories, explaining events and outcomes, describing characters, and identifying problems and predicting solutions

                    begins to sequence events forwards and backwards

                    describes news and events, elaborating to add detail to improve understanding for the listener

                    The child...

                    shows a clear structure in narratives with beginning, problem, plan and a resolution

                    uses backwards and forwards referencing to elaborate on points made

                    The child...

                    creates long and detailed narratives on complex concepts and events not encountered daily

                    retells stories, using the language of the text: identifies the title, names and describes characters, sequences events, explains events and outcomes, describes problems and suggests solutions, predicts outcomes and identifies and discusses the moral of the story.

                    The child...

                    creates engaging oral narratives, making effective use of aesthetic, imaginative and figurative language

                    elaborates using appropriate language, sequencing, register, intonation, pace, gestures, body language

                    and imagery watches and listens attentively in order to retell complex stories and events, keeping the audience/listener engaged and informed

                    The child...

                    discusses and reflects on their own and others’ style of oral storytelling, recognising the influence of culture and identity in how stories are told

                    analyses, synthesises and spontaneously retells stories and events, editing and/or elaborating for specific purposes

                    Playful and creative use of language

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                    Stage 1

                    Junior and Senior Infants
                    Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 2

                    First and Second class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 3

                    Third and Fourth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 4

                    Fifth and Sixth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Listen and respond to the aesthetic and creative aspects of language and use language playfully and creatively, and across other languages as appropriate.

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                    Manipulate language creatively through listening and responding to the aesthetic and creative aspects of language, at sound, word, sentence and text level.

                    Use language playfully and creatively in their own conversations and texts and across other languages as appropriate.

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                    Examples of children's language learning

                    Progression steps

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                    The child...

                    listens and attends to familiar rhymes and songs.

                    The child...

                    Enjoys activities involving rhymes and songs

                    The child...

                    listens to and joins in with rhymes, songs and language games.

                    The child...

                    responds to poetry, rhymes and songs through gesture, action and props

                    distinguishes between and has fun with nonsense words and real words. in pretend play, uses language to create simple imaginary scenarios with peers and adults.

                    The child...

                    uses language playfully and creatively in providing alternative endings for rhymes while maintaining the rhyme.

                    in pretend play, uses language from experiences and texts to create elaborative imaginary scenarios.

                    The child...

                    uses a growing bank of vocabulary and uses this imaginatively in oral texts

                    The child...

                    uses some specific words and phrases to share an idea in a particular way drawing on a range of experiences and texts

                    The child...

                    uses creative or imaginative language for a specific meaning or feeling, drawing on a range of experiences and texts

                    begins to use figurative language to add detail

                    The child...

                    uses a range of vocabulary from different sources to extend ideas and add more detail and effect

                    uses figurative language so an oral text has particular impact on a listener

                    The child...

                    identifies and plays with aesthetic features of aural and figurative language (for example, tongue twisters, rhymes, puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, music and songs, sound effects, similes, metaphors) for pleasure, interest and to enrich their own conversations and texts.

                    The child...

                    experiments with aesthetic and creative features of language, inventing new sounds, words and texts, often spontaneously and without prompt

                    Information giving, explanation and justification

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                    Stage 1

                    Junior and Senior Infants
                    Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 2

                    First and Second class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 3

                    Third and Fourth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Stage 4

                    Fifth and Sixth class
                    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                    Supply, explain and justify points of information to familiar and unfamiliar audiences using topic-specific language.

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                    Analyse and select information to communicate ideas and opinions for a variety of purposes, such as informing, debating, explaining, justifying and persuading.

                      Progression steps

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                      The child...

                      consistently expresses likes, dislikes, wants and needs

                      The child...

                      provides information relating to a specific topic/theme

                      The child...

                      tells what they are doing and names and describes familiar people, toys and activities.

                      The child...

                      provides a description or explanation about a visible object or person.

                      when retelling a familiar story with adult support, uses language removed from the current context to explain, describe problems and suggest possible solutions.

                      The child...

                      names, explains and describes familiar objects, people, events, concepts and subjects giving main points or functions.

                      uses language suited to topic to explain how to play, construct, conduct a process, play a game or toy

                      gives brief explanations and justifications for their opinions or responses showing their individuality and voice.

                      The child...

                      explains and informs on a subject or historical event, reflecting the main idea and informs on the thoughts of third parties.

                      shows increasing independence in presenting to class on topics, using appropriate manner and topicspecific language.

                      The child...

                      informs and reflects on their thoughts and those of third parties.

                      Explains and informs on a subject reflecting the main idea, interpreting information and drawing inferences

                      names, describes and elaborates on a problem, providing a solution

                      The child...

                      interprets new information, drawing inferences and relating information to previous experience

                      The child...

                      uses language suited to the topic to give clear explanations and descriptions, sequencing main events and using backwards and forwards referencing for clarity

                      provides and justifies opinion about an event

                      The child...

                      listens to, analyses and selects language and information to verbalise thoughts and beliefs about a subject, adapting their tone and register purposefully

                      justifies their perspective and opinions based on evidence and personal experience

                      The child...

                      listens to, interprets and reflects on competing thoughts and beliefs about complex subjects

                      evaluates, adjusts, reiterates and/or reframes their views, as appropriate

                      Description, prediction and reflection

                      clipboard

                      Stage 1

                      Junior and Senior Infants
                      Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

                      Stage 2

                      First and Second class
                      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                      Stage 3

                      Third and Fourth class
                      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                      Stage 4

                      Fifth and Sixth class
                      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

                      Describe, predict and reflect upon actions, events and processes relating to real and imaginary contexts.

                      • Toradh Foghlama Icon

                      Describe, predict, reflect upon and evaluate actions, events, processes, feelings and experiences relating to a wide range of real and imaginary contexts.

                        Examples of children's language learning

                        Progression steps

                        Previous SlideNext Slide

                        The child...

                        acknowledges when an action/event is starting and/or finishing.

                        The child...

                        anticipates familiar activities, routines and events.

                        uses text to prepare for familiar activities, routines, events.

                        The child...

                        says what they are doing and names and describes familiar people.

                        recalls/describes something they have completed in class to other members of the group.

                        The child...

                        identifies a problem and begins to use language to express own thoughts and to show awareness of others’ thoughts.

                        The child...

                        when telling a familiar story, interprets behaviours and speculates about characters’ motives.

                        The child...

                        uses language confidently to refer to their own and third parties’ thoughts.

                        describes and explains main points of real and imagined actions and events.

                        The child...

                        discusses and reflects upon real and imagined actions and events and elaborates on possible predicted outcomes.

                        The child...

                        explains problems and solutions and gives reasons for predicted outcomes.

                        The child...

                        reflects on their own news and predicts future events from evidence of past events.

                        provides a number of predicted outcomes and explanations for each.

                        The child...

                        analyses and discusses their own and others’ feelings, experiences and actions with empathy, as appropriate.

                        describes and predicts possible outcomes to real and imaginary experiences and events.

                        The child...

                        reflects on and evaluates their own and others’ feelings, experiences and actions, both real and imaginary.