Writing

Welcome to the learning outcomes of the Primary Language Curriculum.

Here you can navigate the learning outcomes by strand (Oral Language, Reading, Writing, Teanga Ó Bhéal, Léitheoireacht, Scríbhneoireacht) using the menu on the left.

In the tables below, you'll notice that when you hover on a tab number the relevant learning outcome label appears. Once you click on the relevant learning outcome tab, it appears with the associated Examples of Children's Language Learning, Support Materials for teachers and progression steps

  • Communicating
  • Understanding
  • Exploring and using

Engagement

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Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Attend to, take part in and have fun mark-making, drawing and writing, across languages where appropriate, to communicate with others.

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Recognise themselves as writers, take part in and enjoy writing, across languages where appropriate, to communicate with others.

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Engage positively and purposefully while creating text in a variety of genres, other languages where appropriate and across the curriculum.

 

Use writing as a tool to clarify and structure thought and to express individuality.

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Examples of children's language learning

Progression steps

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The child...

experiments with and investigates mark-making implements and surfaces.

The child...

has fun making marks and uses vocalisations or gestures to focus attention on these.

The child...

enjoys drawings and letter-like forms and shares meaning through naming some features in their texts.

The child...

enjoys creating their own early written texts and explains the main messages in these.

The child...

enjoys writing and shares meaning through reading and discussing their texts.

The child...

enjoys writing for self-selected and different purposes with help from basic genre structures.

The child...

enjoys writing in a wider range of genres, exploring his/her own style, adding detail to ideas and verbally discussing these with others.

The child...

enjoys using personal style of writing in a range of genres, elaborating on details, developing characters further and using language creatively and imaginatively and sharing these with others.

The child...

enjoys using own style of writing in a range, of genres drawing on figurative language and creating vivid images to impact on a reader, and discusses and shares their work.

The child...

examines and discusses personal style, purpose, and enjoyment of creating text collaboratively and/or individually.

further develops their own style of creating text by working collaboratively with peers to create and develop text in a variety of genres.

The child...

evaluates and critiques own style of creating text and shares their experience as a creator of text with others.

discusses and reflects on the development and progression of their skills as authors to create more complex texts.

Support materials for teachers

Motivation and choice

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Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Choose appropriate tools, content and topics for their own writing and select texts for sharing with others.

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Evaluate and critically choose appropriate tools, strategies, content and topics to create text in a range of genres across the curriculum for a variety of purposes and audiences.

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Examples of children's language learning

Progression steps

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The child...

handles mark-making implements and materials to create text.

The child...

chooses mark-making implements and materials to create text of their choosing.

The child...

plays with a variety of implements and materials to create texts on a topic of their choice and selects texts to share with others.

The child...

uses a variety of implements and materials to create texts on a chosen topic and selects texts to display.

The child...

with increasing independence, chooses a topic and appropriate implements to create texts and selects texts to publish and display.

The child...

chooses from a wider range of topics and, with support, selects content and different presentation formats to share their writing.

The child...

chooses and refines ideas and content for their texts, and selects from a range of presentation formats to share their writing.

The child...

begins to research and chooses content to write about less-familiar topics and selects from a wider range of presentation formats to share their writing.

The child...

researches and chooses content to write about less familiar topics and selects appropriate presentation formats to share their writing.

The child...

compares and selects appropriate information from various sources for the intended purpose and audience.

analyses feedback for use in redrafting text.

selects the appropriate genre for intended purpose and audience.

The child...

analyses appropriate sources of information and selects most relevant source for the intended purpose and audience.

critically selects appropriate feedback to redraft text.

justifies genre selected to create text for an intended purpose and audience.

Support materials for teachers

Conventions of print and sentence structure

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Stage 1

Junior and Senior Infants
Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 2

First and Second class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 3

Third and Fourth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Stage 4

Fifth and Sixth class
Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

Use basic conventions of print and sentence structure.

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Use more sophisticated conventions of print and sentence structure, and a range of verb tenses and connectives in their writing.

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Use increasingly nuanced print conventions in their independent writing.

Use a variety of simple, compound and complex sentence structures, varying sentence length to suit the audience, style and tone of their writing

    Progression steps

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    The child...

    experiments with signs, symbols and text to communicate.

    The child...

    uses signs, symbols and text to create meaning.

    The child...

    distinguishes between letters and pictures.

    The child...

    distinguishes between reading and writing and writes left to right, top to bottom, page by page.

    The child...

    uses some correct word order, sentence structure and letters, spaces, words, sentences, full-stops, and begins to use capital letters appropriately.

    The child...

    uses correct word order, sentence structure, capitals and complete sentences.

    The child...

    uses question marks, basic connectives, some correct verb tenses, and begins to use paragraphs.

    The child...

    uses quotation marks, exclamation marks, some paragraphs, connectives and different correct verb tenses.

    The child...

    uses commas, possessive apostrophes, contractions, paragraphs, compound and complex sentences, and mostly correct verb tenses.

    The child...

    uses a wide range of conventions of print (for example colon, semicolon, dash, hyphen etc.)

    examines how conventions of print and sentence structure aids meaning, conveys a message, and enhances the readers’ experience.

    recognises and compares differences in sentence structure in English, Irish, and other languages.

    uses digital formats to convey variance in conventions of print across languages (e.g. é, β, ϋ, ѐ etc.).

    The child...

    selects and justifies appropriate conventions of print and sentence structure to aid meaning; to convey a message; and to enhance the readers’ experience.

    discusses sentence structure in English, Irish, and other languages.

    demonstrates an understanding of the impact of varying types and lengths of sentences when creating text.

    Support materials for teachers

    Spelling and word study

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    Stage 1

    Junior and Senior Infants
    Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 2

    First and Second class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 3

    Third and Fourth class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Stage 4

    Fifth and Sixth class
    Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

    Recognise, name and sound letters and use some correct spellings, drawing on their sound and letter patterns to try out invented spelling.

    Spell high frequency and high interest words accurately.

      Use knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and common spelling patterns to accurately spell words.

      Spell a wide range of high frequency words accurately and begin to use reference materials to check and correct spelling.

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      Analyse how letter-sound correspondences, common spelling patterns and meaningful word parts and roots impact on spelling, using this knowledge to correctly spell words in their writing.

      Use appropriate reference materials to independently check and correct spelling.

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      Progression steps

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      The child...

      creates shapes in mark making.

      The child...

      creates shapes in mark-making to communicate meaning.

      The child...

      recognises some letters in familiar words and uses these and other symbols to represent text.

      recalls features/ differences of pictures and/or objects.

      The child...

      connects the letter symbol to the sound for some upper and lower case letters, and uses random strings of letters showing emerging awareness of letter sounds to represent text.

      understands the connection between the written and the spoken word. begins to copy print.

      The child...

      uses some phonetically correct letters, common letter patterns and familiar words.

      begins to distinguish between short and long vowel sounds. recognises similarities and differences between some letters.

      The child...

      sounds and names all upper- and lower-case letters.

      uses some correct consonants and vowels in approximate spellings and spells some highfrequency and familiar words with appropriate sequencing of phonemes.

      demonstrates an awareness of sounds covered through sounding out unfamiliar words while spelling.

      recognises consonant/vowel sound patterns in syllables of spoken words.

      The child...

      uses digraphs and letter strings and a range of familiar words, draws on visual memory for high-frequency words and begins to use dictionaries.

      begins to understand that some words are spelled differently from how they are pronounced.

      The child...

      uses strategies including syllabification, strings and patterns, and dictionaries to spell a wider range of words and self-corrects more often.

      understand that some words are spelled differently from how they are pronounced.

      The child...

      uses a range of strategies flexibly to spell unusual and difficult words.

      The child...

      identifies and discusses similarities and differences between words in different languages.

      discusses and evaluates the purpose of standardised spelling.

      analyses and discusses the origins of words from a range of subject areas.

      identifies, explains, and uses a range of strategies to spell unusual and difficult words to create texts.

      The child...

      reflects on sources and strategies used to aid spelling and assesses their use.

      discusses differences between standard English in Ireland and in other countries.

      Support materials for teachers

      Vocabulary

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      Stage 1

      Junior and Senior Infants
      Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 2

      First and Second class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 3

      Third and Fourth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Stage 4

      Fifth and Sixth class
      Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

      Use a growing range of vocabulary from their personal experiences and engagement with text and use language playfully and creatively in their writing.

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      Use a more sophisticated range of vocabulary from many sources and explore the aesthetic, creative and imaginative dimensions of language in their writing.

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      Examine, select and justify appropriate vocabulary to create text across a range of genres and other languages where appropriate for a variety of purposes and audiences.

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      Examine, select and justify appropriate vocabulary to create text of increasing complexity across a range of genres and other languages where appropriate for a variety of purposes and audiences.

      Evaluate the aesthetic, creative, figurative and imaginative dimensions of language in their writing.

      Evaluate how vocabulary is used in various contexts in their writing.

        Examples of children's language learning

        Progression steps

        Previous SlideNext Slide

        The child...

        explores, investigates and experiments with the use of marks and shapes.

        The child...

        uses marks and shapes to share a personal experience.

        The child...

        uses language from their personal experiences and uses it playfully and imaginatively in texts created with the teacher as scribe.

        The child...

        uses new vocabulary and phrases from texts read and uses language playfully and imaginatively in texts created through shared writing with the teacher.

        The child...

        uses language from their personal experiences, texts read and the environment and uses language playfully and imaginatively in texts created independently.

        The child...

        uses language removed from their personal experience and encountered when creating texts and uses this language imaginatively in their own texts.

        The child...

        uses topic-specific words and phrases to share an idea in a particular way, drawing on a range of experiences and texts, and begins to add detail using adjectives and adverbs.

        The child...

        intentionally uses vocabulary to convey a specific meaning, mood, feeling using creative and imaginative language, drawing on a range of experiences and texts.

        The child...

        selects vocabulary from a range of sources and uses it to extend ideas, add more detail and create an effect, mood or image, and begins to use figurative language so that a text has a particular impact on a reader.

        The child...

        discusses strategies used to learn and acquire vocabulary for use in creating text.

        discusses strategies used to source vocabulary (including subject specific vocabulary) from a range of sources to create fictional/non-fictional texts.

        identifies, explains, and uses creative, aesthetic, and imaginative language to create texts and discusses the purpose of using these aspects of language in their texts.

        The child...

        assesses strategies to source vocabulary and to learn and acquire vocabulary for use in creating text.

        recognises and appreciates differences between subjective and objective language found in various genres when selecting vocabulary to create text.

        recognises vocabulary which portrays prejudice, stereotyping, or bias and is mindful of this when creating text.

        Support materials for teachers

        Purpose, genre, and voice

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        Stage 1

        Junior and Senior Infants
        Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

        Stage 2

        First and Second class
        Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

        Stage 3

        Third and Fourth class
        Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

        Stage 4

        Fifth and Sixth class
        Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

        Draw and write with a sense of purpose and audience while creating texts in a range of genres and other languages where appropriate.

        Explore and use the typical text structure and language features associated with a variety of genres.

        Develop an individual voice to share their thoughts, knowledge and experiences.

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        Create text for a wide variety of authentic purposes, demonstrating an increasing understanding of the influence of the audience on their work.

        Use, analyse and evaluate the typical text structure and language features associated with a wide variety of genres across the curriculum.

        Use a variety of writing techniques to further develop and demonstrate an individual voice in their writing, including awareness of dialect.

          Examples of children's language learning

          Progression steps

          Previous SlideNext Slide

          The child...

          uses signs, symbols or text to share experiences.

          The child...

          shares thoughts, knowledge and experiences with others through mark-making.

          The child...

          begins to share thoughts, knowledge and experiences for a particular purpose and audience using marks, drawings and some letters.

          The child...

          writes and draws for a particular purpose and audience while sharing thoughts, knowledge and experiences.

          The child...

          writes for a wider range of purposes and audiences while sharing thoughts, knowledge and experiences.

          The child...

          begins to write in a range of genres using a basic structure appropriate to a particular genre, matching language to purpose, genre and audience.

          The child...

          writes in a range of genres providing detail, elaborating on key points and using appropriate language while exploring their own style.

          The child...

          writes in a range of genres elaborating on details and developing characters and ideas further using appropriate language and structure while exploring their own style.

          The child...

          writes in a range of genres using structure flexibly to best suit their intent while using language creatively and conveying their own style.

          The child...

          examines and discusses the validity of information gathered to create text.

          identifies and describes features of their texts specific to their own individual voice.

          selects the appropriate language register (including the use of dialects/accents) to create texts for a specific purpose and audience.

          discusses and explains the purpose of texts and how this impacted on decisions made when creating text.

          The child...

          evaluates and justifies sources used to create text.

          evaluates and reflects on features of their texts specific to their own individual voice.

          examines and evaluates a variety of opinions, perspectives, and cultures for use in creating text.

          justifies decisions made while creating texts for a specific purpose and audience.

          Support materials for teachers

          Writing process and creating text

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          Stage 1

          Junior and Senior Infants
          Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 2

          First and Second class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 3

          Third and Fourth class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Stage 4

          Fifth and Sixth class
          Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

          Use the writing process when creating texts collaboratively or independently.

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          Identify and evaluate skills and strategies associated with writing as a process and use them to create texts independently and/or collaboratively across a range of genres, in other languages where appropriate and across the curriculum for a variety of purposes and audiences.

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          Use appropriate language to evaluate and discuss revisions and edits to texts created in a range of genres for a variety of purposes and audiences. 

            Examples of children's language learning

            Progression steps

            Previous SlideNext Slide

            The child...

            explores personal experiences and interests through signs, symbols and text.

            The child...

            creates text using personal experiences and interests as stimulus.

            The child...

            begins to take part in collaborative writing with the teacher as scribe.

            The child...

            uses familiar topics as a stimulus for texts while creating texts jointly with the teacher.

            The child...

            collaboratively plans texts orally; sequences and writes texts with other children; reads and talks about their writing.

            The child...

            independently plans, sequences and writes texts; reads and talks about their writing with the teacher to check if it makes sense and begins to suggest simple changes to improve it.

            The child...

            independently plans and gathers information to create texts with a beginning, middle and end; reads and discusses their writing, identifying changes to improve it.

            The child...

            draws on a range of text sources, and begins to use graphic organisers to plan writing; composes, proofs and edits to include feedback.

            The child...

            draws on a wider range of text sources and uses graphic organisers to plan independent writing; composes, proofs and self-edits to improve texts.

            The child...

            evaluates and assesses feedback from others and selects relevant feedback to redraft text.

            uses proofing and editing aids to revise/redraft text.

            reflects on strategies and skills used during the writing process and assesses their effectiveness.

            The child...

            explains and justifies feedback incorporated to redraft text.

            evaluates and justifies proofing and editing aids used to revise/redraft texts.

            explains and justifies strategies and skills used during the writing process.

            Support materials for teachers

            Response and author’s intent

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            Stage 1

            Junior and Senior Infants
            Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 2

            First and Second class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 3

            Third and Fourth class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Stage 4

            Fifth and Sixth class
            Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

            Share the meaning of their own texts and demonstrate understanding through responding to the texts of others.

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            Elaborate on the meaning of their own writing and discuss the texts of others showing an emerging recognition of the author’s intent.

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            Examine and critically reflect on their own intent and influences as authors.

            Discuss and evaluate others’ interpretation of their texts.

              Progression steps

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              The child...

              uses a form of expression to convey the meaning of marks made.

              The child...

              gives meaning to marks made by self.

              responds to marks made by others.

              The child...

              talks about their own texts and begins to respond to others’ texts through talk, marks and drawings.

              The child...

              talks about and uses more detailed drawings in their own texts and gives more detail in responses to others’ texts.

              The child...

              uses more elaborate drawings to share detail and identifies simple, explicit pieces of text in response to specific questions. shares a personal interpretation of another person’s text.

              The child...

              discusses their own work giving reasons for selection of topic and content. discusses the work of others relating it to familiar experiences.

              The child...

              hares their work with others, elaborating on details. responds to the work of others, discussing main points raised in greater depth and relating it where relevant to their own experiences.

              The child...

              verbally discusses, explains and connects with characters created in their own stories in greater detail.

              discusses characters and key events in the stories of others, predicting and inferring characters’ motives for key actions.

              The child...

              shares their reasons for use of particular words/ phrases used for effect/mood/ impact.

              interprets main messages being conveyed in the work of others and infers author’s reason for these.

              The child...

              compares their own intention as authors with others’ interpretation of their text.

              recognises the influence of an author’s culture and identity on messages being conveyed.

              examines and investigates a variety of methods and styles to portray the authors’ message and intent.

              The child...

              evaluates the influence of their own culture and identity (as well as cultures in their community and outside their community) when creating texts.

              assesses the link between the author’s intent and the language register chosen.

              Support materials for teachers

              Handwriting and presentation

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              Stage 1

              Junior and Senior Infants
              Through appropriately playful learning experiences, children should be able to

              Stage 2

              First and Second class
              Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

              Stage 3

              Third and Fourth class
              Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

              Stage 4

              Fifth and Sixth class
              Through appropriately engaging learning experiences, children should be able to

              Write upper and lower case letters as separate, flowing letters and present texts in a range of formats.

                Write legibly and fluently in a chosen script and present texts in a range of formats.

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                Write legibly and fluently in a chosen script using a personal style and present texts in a range of formats.

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                Select, justify, and recommend appropriate writing and presentation styles to create and present texts in a range of formats.

                  Examples of children's language learning

                  Progression steps

                  Previous SlideNext Slide

                  The child...

                  explores mark-making implements and surfaces.

                  The child...

                  uses mark-making implements and surfaces to present texts in a range of formats.

                  The child...

                  uses some muscle control to make letter-like forms.

                  The child...

                  uses good muscle control. writes some upper and lower-case letters.

                  The child...

                  writes some upper and lower-case letters legibly and as separate flowing letters.

                  The child...

                  writes most upper and lower-case letters as separate flowing letters.

                  The child...

                  writes legibly and fluently using separate flowing letters.

                  presents text in a variety of formats.

                  The child...

                  writes legibly with cursive script.

                  presents text for a variety of purposes and audiences.

                  The child...

                  writes legibly and fluently with cursive script.

                  presents text in a creative and engaging way for a variety of purposes and audiences.

                  The child...

                  examines and discusses presentation styles, strategies and formats when creating texts.

                  The child...

                  discusses and has fun with alphabets and scripts associated with different languages.

                  Support materials for teachers