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Planning, Teaching and Assessment

This section illustrates how teachers might develop exponents* in each of the modern foreign languages.

Explicit links to learning outcomes in the MFL specification are included. These and the competences below are both informed by the CEFR. Such links support teachers in their planning and also provide assistance in devising ‘can do’ statements for students that can be included in their portfolios.

The learning outcomes, in their entirety, are usually developed over the course of junior cycle. Therefore, the learning outcomes chosen here represent a sample of ones that could be developed not only during the study of this theme, but would be incrementally achieved over the three years of junior cycle across a number of themes. In addition, the relevant aspects of learning outcomes related to the sample exponents below are in bold.

No significance should attach to the choice of themes or learning activities used here. Any theme and any relevant activity could have been chosen for illustrative purposes.

Each of the themes has the English versions of the exponents and the exponents are presented as they might be developed for each of the four languages.

Sample theme A: On holiday Sample theme B: Going on a school exchange
English version English
French French
German German
Italian Italian
Spanish Spanish


CEFR Common Reference Levels; global scale
The Common Reference Levels – self-assessment grid


*An exponent is a language item used for a situational purpose.