Glossary

Word Description
Abairtí casta

Bíonn príomhchlásal agus fochlásal nó dhó in abairt chasta. Bíonn íochtarán in abairt chasta i gcónaí ar nós mar, toisc, de bhrí, tar éis, cénuair nó forainm coibhneasta ar nós a, m.sh. Tá na daltaí ag staidéar toisc go mbeidh scrúdú acu amárach.

Abairtí comhshuite

Bíonn dhá chlásal neamhspleácha in abairt chomhshuite, agus iad nasctha ag comhordaitheoir. Seo a leanas na comhordaitheoirí: toisc, agus, ná, ach, nó, fós, mar sin. Ach amháin i gcás abairtí gearra, cuirtear camóg roimh an gcomhordaitheoir i gcónaí chun dhá chlásal neamhspleácha a chur le chéile, m.sh. Bhí Peadar ag imirt peile, mar sin chuaigh Máire ag siopadóireacht.

Achoimriú coimriú a dhéanamh de ghnéithe suntasacha ruda
Aeistéitiúil

Is éard atá i gceist le diminsean aeistéitiúil teanga, teanga a ionramháil go samhlaíoch, go cruthaitheach agus go healaíonta.

Aesthetic The aesthetic dimension of language relates to the use of language imaginatively, creatively and artistically.
Affixes Affixes are morphemes that are attached to a root word to form a new word e.g. build+er, un+happy or a grammatical variant of a word e.g. cat+s, walk+ed.
Aithin fíricí, saintréithe nó coincheapa atá riachtanach (ábhartha/oiriúnach) chun cás, imeacht, próiseas nó feiniméan a thuiscint a shainaithint
Aithint fíricí, saintréithe nó coincheapa a shainiú atá riachtanach (ábhartha/oiriúnach) chun cás, imeacht, próiseas nó feiniméan a thuiscint
Alphabetical principles The alphabetic principle recognises that letters and combinations of letters are used to represent the sounds of a language which are based on the relationship between written letters, symbols, and spoken words.
Anailísigh staidéar nó scrúdú a dhéanamh ar rud go mion, rud a mhiondealú chun na bunghnéithe nó an bunstruchtúr a nochtadh; codanna agus coibhneasa a shainaithint, agus fianaise a léirmhíniú chun teacht ar chonclúidí
Anailísiú staidéar nó scrúdú a dhéanamh ar rud go mion, rud a bhriseadh síos d’fhonn na buneilimintí nó an struchtúr a nochtadh; codanna agus coibhneasa a aithint, agus fianaise a léirmhíniú chun teacht ar thátail
Analyse study or examine something in detail, break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure; identify parts and relationships, and to interpret information to reach conclusions
Analyse study or examine something in detail, break down something in order to bring out the essential elements or structure; identify parts and relationships, and interpret information to reach conclusions
Annotated examples of student work Online samples of student work illustrating levels of achievement in relation to features of quality.
ante

Comprehension strategies are strategies and processes used by readers to make meaning from texts. Key comprehension strategies include:

  • activating and using prior knowledge
  • predicting
  • visualising
  • making connections
  • questioning
  • clarifying
  • determining importance
  • inferring
  • synthesising.
Antonyms An antonym is a word opposite in meaning to another word e.g. bad and good.
Apply select and use information and/or knowledge and understanding to explain a given situation or real circumstances
Apply select and use information and/or knowledge and understanding to explain a given situation or real circumstances
Appreciate recognise the meaning of, have a practical understanding of
Appreciate recognise the meaning of; have a practical understanding of
Assess judge, evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or quality of something
Assessment Assessment is the process of generating, gathering, recording, interpreting, using and reporting evidence of learning in individuals, groups or systems. Educational assessment provides information about progress in learning, and achievement in developing skills, knowledge, behaviours and attitudes.
Assessment task Any performance opportunity that allows students to demonstrate their progress and achievements in relation to learning outcomes.
Athbhreithnigh athscrúdú a dhéanamh go cúramach nó go criticiúil, chun tacú nó easaontú de ghnáth; torthaí a anailísiú chun tuairim a thabhairt
Athbhreithniú athscrúdú a dhéanamh go cúramach agus go criticiúil, chun tacaíocht a thabhairt de ghnáth nó chun easaontas a dhéanamh; torthaí a anailísiú chun tuairim a thabhairt
Athmhachnamh a dhéanamh a mheabhrú chun ceartúchán nó feabhsúchán a dhéanamh
Audience The audience is the intended group of readers, listeners, viewers that the writer, designer, or speaker is addressing.
Book terminology

Book terminology is the vocabulary associated with books e.g. author, blurb, illustrator, contents page, glossary, chapter, publisher etc.

Brabhsáil

Is éard atá i gceist le brabhsáil sa chomhthéacs seo ábhar léitheoireachta ó réimse foinsí clóite agus ar líne a chur faoi chaibidil d’fhonn ábhar léitheoireachta atá oiriúnach dá gcuspóir léitheoireachta a roghnú.

Braistint ghutha

Tagraíonn braistint ghutha d’fhorbairt ar ghuth agus ar fhéinléiriú an pháiste féin (gníomhú).

Browse Browse in this context means to scan reading material from a variety of print-based and online sources with the aim of selecting reading material that is appropriate to the reading purpose.
Buninniúlacht choiteann teanga

De réir mar atá páiste ag foghlaim teanga amháin, sealbhaíonn sé/sí scileanna meititheangeolaíocha ar féidir leis/léi tarraingt orthu nuair a bhíonn teanga eile á foghlaim.

Business environment All of the factors, both internal and external, which influence the function of a business. It includes, for example, consumers, suppliers, competing companies, entrepreneurs, improvements in technology, laws, government activities, and market, social and economic trends
Calculate obtain a numerical answer showing the relevant stages in the working
Calculate obtain a numerical answer, showing the relevant stages in the working
Ceap na coincheapa nó na hargóintí cuí a chur in iúl go beacht agus go córasach
Ceisteanna dúnta

Ceisteanna d’ord íseal is ea ceisteanna dúnta. Bíonn fócas cúng acu agus tugtar freagraí gearra, fíriciúla orthu, m.sh. cé, cad, cá háit agus cén uair. Úsáidtear iad chun eolas sonrach a fháil.

Ceisteanna oscailte

Ceisteanna d’ord níos airde is ea ceisteanna oscailte a éilíonn ar an bhfreagróir smaoineamh fúthu agus machnamh a dhéanamh orthu. Ní féidir freagra ‘is ea’ nó ‘ní hea’ a thabhairt ar na ceisteanna seo, is é a theastaíonn freagra níos forbartha a chuireann eolas agus/nó braistintí an fhreagróra san áireamh.

Classify group things based on common characteristics
Classify group things based on common characteristics
Closed questions Closed questions are lower-order questions that have a narrow focus and require short, factual answers e.g. who, what, where and when. They are used to elicit specific information.
Cluster A cluster refers to two or more letters making two (or three) sounds, for example the first three letters of ‘straight’ are a consonant cluster or consonant blend.
Comhainmneacha

Focail a fhoghraítear mar a chéile ach nach ionann a mbrí, m.sh. cóir agus comhair, suí agus saoi, téigh agus téigh.

Comhaird

Is éard atá i gceist leis an gcomhaird cás ina ndíríonn beirt atá ag déanamh cumarsáide lena chéile ar an rud céanna. Tá níos mó i gceist leis ná breathnú ar an rud, tuigeann an bheirt go bhfuil siad ag díriú ar an rud céanna.

Comhchiallaigh

Comhchiallach is ea focal a bhfuil an chiall chéanna aige le focal eile, nó ciall atá cosúil leis, m.sh. áthasach, sona, sásta.

Comhfhreagairtí idir graiféimí agus fóinéimí
Is é atá i gceist le comhfhreagairtí idir graiféimí agus fóinéimí, an gaol atá idir siombailí scríofa agus na foghair a seasann siad dóibh. Le go sealbhóidh páistí an scil seo go hiomlán, tá sé tábhachtach go mbeidh siad in ann:
  • gach litir, idir chás íochtair agus chás uachtair, a aithint, a ainmniú agus a fhuaimniú
  • a aithint gur féidir le litreacha feidhmiú ina n-aonar nó mar ghrúpa
  • a aithint gur féidir an fhuaim chéanna a chur in iúl le litreacha difriúla
  • fuaimeanna cosúla a aithint a chuirtear in iúl trí theaglamaí difriúla litreacha
  • teaglamaí difriúla litreacha agus na fuaimeanna difriúla a seasann siad dóibh a aithint
  • gaoil fuaime-siombaile níos éagoitinne a aithint.
Comhréir

Tagraíonn comhréir do na rialacha ar faoina réir a gcuirtear focail in ord, a leagtar amach abairtí agus a socraítear an gaol idir fhocail. Is í an chomhréir a thugann le  fios cé na leaganacha d’fhocail agus de fhrásaí atá inghlactha nó atá ceart de réir na gramadaí, agus cé na leaganacha nach bhfuil. Comhréir a thugtar ar na rialacha a chinneann foirm nó struchtúr abairte. Rialacha iad seo a chinneann ord na bhfocal, na bhfrásaí agus na gclásal; eagar na habairte; agus an gaol idir fhocail, aicmí focal, agus eilimintí eile den abairt.

Common underlying proficiency

As a child is learning one language, he/she acquires metalinguistic skills which he/she can draw upon when learning another language.

Comparáid a dhéanamh cuntas a thabhairt ar na cosúlachtaí agus/nó na difríochtaí idir dhá rud nó cás (nó níos mó), ag tagairt don dá cheann acu/dóibh uile síos tríd
Compare give an account of the similarities and/or differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both/all of them throughout
Compare give an account of the similarities and/or differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both/all of them throughout
Complete finish making or doing; bring to a successful conclusion
Complex sentences

A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator (also known as a subordinate conjunction) such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which e.g. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.

Compound sentences

A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator (also known as a coordinating conjunction). The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma when used to join two independent clauses e.g. Alex played football, so Mary went shopping.

Comprehension strategies

Comprehension strategies are strategies and processes used by readers to make meaning from texts. Key comprehension strategies include:

  • activating and using prior knowledge
  • predicting
  • visualising
  • making connections
  • questioning
  • clarifying
  • determining importance
  • inferring
  • synthesising.
Conduct to perform an activity
Conduct organise and carry out
Conduct

to perform an activity

Connectives

Connectives are words which link paragraphs and sentences to focus on time, cause and effect, comparison or addition. Connectives relate ideas to one another and help to show the logic of the information. Connectives are important resources for creating cohesion in texts. The purposes of connectives can be grouped as follows:

  • temporal – to indicate time or sequence ideas (eg first, second, next)
  • causal – to show cause and effect (eg because, for, so)
  • additive – to add information (eg also, besides, furthermore)
  • comparative – eg rather, alternatively
  • conditional/concessive – to make conditions or concession (eg yet, although)
  • clarifying – for example in fact, for example.
Consider describe patterns in data; use knowledge and understanding to interpret patterns; make predictions and check reliability
Consider describe patterns in data; use knowledge and understanding to interpret patterns, make predictions and check reliability
Construct develop information in a diagrammatic or logical form; not by factual recall but by analogy or by using and putting together information
Conventions of print

Conventions of print are accepted ways of presenting and organising written text so that this text is consistently and easily understood by all readers. The conventions include the following:

  • print carries a message
  • left to right orientation of print
  • top to bottom orientation of print
  • return sweep
  • appropriate spacing, capitalisation, grammar and punctuation.

Digital conventions include:

  • scrolling
  • swiping left to right
  • top to bottom orientation of print.
Convert change to another form
Cosain cúiseanna bailí nó fianaise bhailí a thabhairt chun tacú le freagra nó le conclúid
Cosaint fáthanna nó fianaise bhailí a thabhairt chun tacú le freagra nó le cinneadh
Cruthú a thabhairt ar an saol trí chumas intleachtach nó cruthaitheach
Cuir i bhfeidhm faisnéis agus/nó eolas agus tuiscint a roghnú agus a úsáid chun cás tugtha nó fíorchúinsí a mhíniú
Cuir síos pictiúr nó íomhá mhionsonraithe a fhorbairt ar struchtúr nó ar phróiseas, mar shampla, ag úsáid focal nó léaráidí mar is cuí; plean, ionsamhlú nó samhail a tháirgeadh
Cur síos a dhéanamh pictiúr nó íomhá mhionsonraithe a fhorbairt ar, mar shampla struchtúr nó próiseas, ag úsáid focal nó léaráidí mar is cuí; plean, ionsamhlú nó mionsamhail a chruthú
Déan tabhairt faoi ghníomhaíocht
Déan comparáid cuntas a thabhairt ar na cosúlachtaí agus/nó ar na difríochtaí idir dhá rud nó cás (nó níos mó), ag tagairt don dá cheann acu/dóibh uile síos tríd
Déan taighde sainfhiosrú a dhéanamh, ag úsáid iniúchadh casta agus criticiúil
Déanamh gníomhaíocht a chur i gcrích
Dear ceapadh, cruthú agus cur i ngníomh de réir plean
Dearadh a cheapadh, a chruthú agus a chur i bhfeidhm de réir plean
Debate argue about a subject, especially in a formal manner
Decontextualised language Decontextualised language is defined as language that is context free. It is not rooted in any immediate context of time and situation and does not rely on observation or immediate physical experience. The use of decontextualised language is critical to children’s learning at a variety of levels. It is used to create and to convey new information to audiences who may share only limited amounts of background information with the speaker. The terms decontextualised language and ‘literate language style’ are similar as both refer to language that is organised, explicit and distanced.
Deighilt fóinéimí

Focal a roinnt ina fhóinéimí aonair chun é a litriú, m.sh. trí fhóinéim atá ag an bhfocal cat: /c/, /a/, /t/, agus trí fhóinéim atá ag an bhfocal grá: /g/, /r/, /á/.

Deimhnigh fianaise a thabhairt chun tacú le fírinne ráitis
Deimhniú fianaise a thabhairt chun tacú le fírinne ráitis
Demonstrate prove or make clear by reasoning or evidence, illustrating with examples or practical application
Demonstrate prove or make clear by reasoning or evidence, illustrating with examples or practical application
Describe develop a detailed picture or image of, for example, a structure or a process, using words or diagrams where appropriate; produce a plan, simulation or model
Describe develop a detailed picture or image of, for example, a structure or a process, using words or diagrams where appropriate; produce a plan, simulation or model
Design to conceive, create and execute according to plan
Determine ascertain or establish exactly by research or calculation
Devan Devan test i3digital
Develop progress or improve to become more mature, advanced, or elaborate
Develop to evolve; to make apparent or expand in detail
Devise plan, create or formulate a procedure or system by careful thought
Differentiate recognise or ascertain what makes something different
Digital technology A set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information, for example, mobile phones, apps, tablets and computers
Discuss offer a considered, balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses;  opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence
Discuss offer a considered, balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses: opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence
Distinguish make the differences between two or more concepts or items clear
Eagraí grafach

Is léirithe físeacha ar eolas, coincheapa nó smaointe iad na heagraithe grafacha.

Eagraigh rud a shocrú; rud a chórasú nó a rianú
Eagrú a shocrú; a chórasú nó a rianú.
Economic resources The factors used in producing goods or providing services. They are the inputs that are used to create things or help provide services including human resources and non-human resources, such as land, capital goods, financial resources, and technology
Elements Each strand is divided into a number of elements, which are the headings under which the learning outcomes are grouped.
Enterprise This strand encourages students to identify opportunities and turn them into practical and targeted activities within business and wider society through the development and application of their understanding, skills and values. It develops students' basic understanding of the financial, marketing and operational functions of an organisation
Entrepreneurship To act upon opportunities and ideas and transform them into value for others. The value that is created can be financial, cultural or social
Evaluate Evalaute (data): collect and examine data to make judgments and appraisals; describe how evidence supports or does not support a conclusion in an inquiry or investigation; identify the limitations of data in conclusions; make judgments about ideas, solutions or methods Evaluate (ethical judgement): collect and examine evidence to make judgments and appraisals; describe how evidence supports or does not support a judgement; identify the limitations of evidence in conclusions; make judgments about ideas, solutions or methods
Evaluate (data) collect and examine data to make judgments and appraisals; describe how evidence supports or does not support a conclusion in an inquiry or investigation; identify the limitations of data in conclusions; make judgments about ideas, solutions or methods
Evaluate (ethical judgement) collect and examine evidence to make judgments and appraisals; describe how evidence supports or does not support a judgement; identify the limitations of evidence in conclusions; make judgments about ideas, solutions or methods
Examine consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and relationships of the issue
Examine consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and relationships of the issue
Explain give a detailed account including reasons or causes
Explain give a detailed account including reasons or causes
Explore observe or study in order to establish facts
Exploring business This element focuses on the context for business, looking at the themes of globalisation, sustainable development and consumerism. It enables students to reflect on the interconnectedness of business to the economy, society and environment, and encourages them to be active and responsible
Expository text Expository text is a type of oral or written discourse where the purpose is to explain, inform or describe.
Extra-linguistic skills

Extra linguistic skills include the ability to use:

  • appropriate eye contact
  • body language
  • gestures and facial expression and sign where appropriate.
Feasacht fhóinéimeach
An léargas gur féidir smaoineamh ar gach focal labhartha mar shraith fóinéimí. Is éard is fóinéim ann an t-aonad fuaime is lú i bhfocal, m.sh. bó /b/ /o:/. Tá an tuiscint seo ríthábhachtach chun an fhónaic
a shealbhú.
Feasacht fóineolaíochta

Tagraíonn feasacht fóineolaíochta don fheasacht a bhíonn ag duine ar struchtúr fóineolaíochta, nó ar struchtúr fuaime, focal. Áirítear ann feasacht ar fhocail, rím, siollaí, túsfhoghar agus foghar deiridh agus fóinéimí.

Feasacht mheititheangeolaíoch

Tagraíonn feasacht mheititheangeolaíoch don chumas le machnamh a dhéanamh ar theanga agus ar an gcaoi a n-úsáidtear í mar phróiseas agus mar dhéantán, agus a thuiscint gur féidir linn teanga a athrú ar bhealaí éagsúla. De réir mar a thagann forbairt ar fheasacht mheititheangeolaíoch páistí, tuigeann siad níos fearr, mar shampla, gur féidir brí liteartha agus brí intuigthe araon bheith le teanga.

Feidhmeanna sóisialta

Is éard atá i gceist le feidhmeanna sóisialta na teanga na feidhmeanna ina n-úsáidtear an teanga ar mhaithe le hidirghníomhú sóisialta laethúil amhail beannú, buíochas a chur in iúl, comhbhrón agus imní a chur in iúl, aiféala a chur in iúl agus fáilte a chur roimh chuairteoirí go muiníneach.

Feidhmiú faisnéis agus/nó eolas agus tuiscint a roghnú agus a úsáid chun cás tugtha nó cúinsí fíora a mhíniú
Fiosraigh breathnú nó staidéar a dhéanamh, d’fhonn fíricí a chinntiú
Fiosrú breathnú, staidéar a dhéanamh, d’fhonn fíricí a chinntiú
Focail ardmhinicíochta

Focail a fheictear go minic i dtéacsanna, m.sh. agus, an, na, tá, siad, le, is, sa, is maith, chun, agus mar sin de.

Foghar (Fuaim)

Baineann an téarma ‘foghar’ nó ‘fuaim’ leis an bhfuaim a dhéanaimid nuair a deirimid litir nó focal, agus ní leis an bhfocal clóite. Is féidir le litreacha difriúla an foghar céanna a léiriú, ar nós an fhoghair /ɣ/ sna focail dhá agus ghoil. Is féidir foghar amháin a chur in iúl le breis is litir amháin, mar is amhlaidh i gcás an fhoghair /éa/ sna focail aon agus éan. Dhá fhoghar atá san fhocal bhí /bh/, /í/ ach trí litir atá ann, ‘b’, ‘h’, ‘í’. Ba chear t do mhúinteoirí na focail ‘foghar’ agus ‘litir’ a úsáid go cruinn ionas gur féidir le daltaí idirdhealú idir an dá fhocal.

Fóinéim

An t-aonad foghair is lú i bhfocal. Tá dhá fhóinéim san fhocal is /i/ agus /s/.Trí fhóinéim atá san fhocal cat /c/, /a/ agus /t/.

Foirm

Is éard atá i gceist le foirm formáidí foilsithe de sheánra áirithe m.sh. dán, gearrscéal, dráma, úrscéal, meamram, ríomhphost, scannán, srl.

Foirmliú/Cur le chéile na coincheapa nó na hargóintí cuí a chur in iúl go beacht agus go córasach
Forbair éabhlóidiú; rud a dhéanamh soiléir nó a leathnú amach ó thaobh sonraí de
Forbairt éabhlú; a dhéanamh soiléir nó a leathnú amach ó thaobh sonraí de
Forbairt stóir focal

Tagann forbairt ar stór focal ó bhéal agus ar stór focal léitheoireachta páistí agus iad ag éirí níos casta, ag dul ón rud nithiúil go dtí an rud teibí, i dtaca le cé chomh minic is a úsáidtear focail, cé chomh casta is atá an bhrí, cé chomh domhain is atá an t-eolas ar fhocail, agus na hathruithe a tharlaíonn de thoradh ar phróisis dhéanamh na bhfocal.

Form Form refers to the published formats of a particular genre e.g. poem, short story, play, novel, memo, email, film etc.
Formative assessment Assessment is formative when either formal or informal procedures are used to gather evidence of learning during the learning process, and used to adapt teaching to meet student needs.
Formulate express the relevant concept(s) or argument(s) precisely and systematically
Fréamhfhocail
Focal gan aon táthmhír ná aon infhilleadh gramadaí is ea an fréamhfhocal m.sh. bus, déan, brón, tóg, fear. Féadtar go leor focal eile a chruthú ach focail fréimhe nó bunfhocail a úsáid:
  • focail infhillte: fréamh + infhilleadh gramadaí m.sh. busanna, déanamh.
  • focail dhíorthaithe: fréamh + táthmhír m.sh. brónach, tógálaí
  • comhfhocail m.sh. saorfhear.
Frithchiallaigh

Frithchiallach is ea focal atá contrártha le focal eile, m.sh. maith agus olc.

Genre

Genres are types of multi-sentence oral or written text structures that have become conventionalised for particular purposes with expected organisational patterns, as well as language features related to register e.g., narrative, informational, persuasive, and multi-genre. Simply put, genre refers to a selection of writing forms in order to recount, explain, entertain, inform, give instructions, narrate, persuade and justify opinions.

Genre awareness Refers to the knowledge the students build up of the range of text types they read and in which they learn to compose.
Globalisation A process of international integration emerging from the interchange of world views, products, services, ideas and other aspects of culture
Gnásanna cló
Nósanna cló a nglactar leo go forleathan chun téacs scríofa a chur i láthair agus a eagrú iad gnásanna cló a úsáidtear ionas go mbeidh an téacs intuigthe ag gach léitheoir go seasta agus go héasca. Ina measc áirítear:
  • go mbíonn teachtaireacht á hiompar ag an bhfocal clóite
  • go léitear ó chlé go deas
  • go léitear ó bharr an leathanaigh go dtí a bhun
  • scuab fillte
  • spásáil, ceannlitriú, gramadach agus poncaíocht chuí
I measc na ngnásanna digiteacha áirítear:
  • scrollú
  • svaidhpeáil ó chlé go deas
  • go léitear ó bharr an scáileáin go dtí a bhun.
Grapheme-phoneme correspondences

Grapheme-phoneme correspondences are the relationships between written symbols and the sounds which they represent. Examples of grapheme-phoneme correspondences include to:

  • recognise, name and sound all letters, lower and upper case
  • recognise that letters can work alone or in a group
  • recognise that the same sound can be represented by different letters
  • identify similar sounds represented by different letter combinations
  • recognise different letter combinations and different sounds they represent
  • recognise less common sound symbol relationships.
Graphic organiser Graphic organisers are visual representations of knowledge, concepts or ideas.
High frequency words

High frequency words are words that appear frequently in texts e.g. the, is, are, to, said, come etc.

Homagraf

Is é atá i homagraif focail a bhfuil an litriú céanna acu ach a bhfuil níos mó ná ciall amháin leo agus/nó fuaimniú difriúil m.sh. fonn, céad, cion.

Homograph

Homographs are words of the same spelling but with more than one meaning, and/or a different pronunciation e.g. bow, record.

Homonyms

Homonyms are words that are pronounced but have different meanings e.g. to, too and two, heir and air, soot and suit.

Identify recognise patterns, facts, or details; provide an answer from a number of possibilities; recognise and state briefly a distinguishing fact or feature
Identify recognise patterns, facts, or details; provide an answer from a number of possibilities; recognise and state briefly a distinguishing fact or feature
Illustrate use examples to describe something
Independent reading level Independent-level text is a term for a text which a child can read fluently and comprehend without help of any kind from the teacher. A child should be able to identify 95-100% of the words and comprehend 90-100% of the text.
Iniúch breathnú, staidéar, nó mionscrúdú córasach a dhéanamh, chun fíricí a chinntiú agus teacht ar chonclúidí úra
Iniúchadh breathnú, staidéar a dhéanamh, nó mionscrúdú córasach a dhéanamh, d’fhonn fíricí a aimsiú agus teacht ar chonclúidí úra
Instructional reading level

Instructional-level text is a term for a text that is appropriately challengingfor a child. Instructional-level texts are appropriate for use in guided reading. With normal classroom instruction and appropriate support a child should be able to identify 90-95% of the words and comprehend 75-90% of the material in the text.

Integrated skills Although this language specification presents Oral Language, Reading, and Writing as separate strands, the student encounters language as an 'integrated' experience where oral language, reading and writing take the form of a continuous and overlapping thread.
Interpret use knowledge and understanding to recognise trends and draw conclusions from given information
Interpret use knowledge and understanding to recognise trends and draw conclusions from given information
Invented spelling

Invented or approximate spelling is a term used when a child uses his/her own combination of letters to make words when creating texts.

Investigate observe, study, or make a detailed and systematic examination, in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions
Investigate observe, study, or make a detailed and systematic examination, in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions
Joint attention

Joint attention is a situation where the individuals involved in a communicative act both focus on the same object. It is more than just looking at an object; the individuals understand that they are attending to the same thing—intentionality.

Justify give valid reasons or evidence to support an answer or conclusion
Justify give valid reasons or evidence to support an answer or conclusion
Language of discourse Discourse requires that children produce several utterances to build particular linguistic structures such as narratives, factual accounts, arguments, explanations or combinations of these. This requires that children go beyond the basic sentence and combine sentences to build accounts which are coherent in terms of organisation of meaning and content, and cohesive in terms of continuity between sentences. The language of discourse requires that children have the sophisticated and genre-specific vocabulary and the grammatical knowledge to formulate sentences for the particular topic under discussion.
Learning outcomes

Statements in curriculum specifications to describe the knowledge, understanding, skills and values that students should be able to demonstrate after a period of learning. 

Leibhéal léitheoireachta neamhspleách

Téarma is ea é don chineál téacs a d’fhéadfadh páiste a léamh go líofa agus ciall a bhaint as gan aon chabhair ón múinteoir. Ba cheart go mbeadh páiste in ann idir 95-100% de na focail a aithint, agus idir 90-100% den téacs a thuiscint.

Leibhéal léitheoireachta teagaisc

Seo téarma ar théacs ag leibhéal cuí dúshláin, ach nach bhfuil thar chumas an pháiste.Tá téacsanna ag leibhéal teagaisc oiriúnach le húsáid i léitheoireacht threoraithe. Ba cheart go mbeadh páiste in ann idir 90-95% de na focail a aithint, agus idir 75-90% den téacs a thuiscint, le gnáth-threoracha agus tacaíocht ranga.

Leideanna comhréire

Is éard atá i gceist le leideanna comhréire noda maidir le brí focal a fhéadtar a bhaint de thátal as ord focal, as struchtúr abairtí agus as an ngaol idir focail.

Leideanna séimeantacha

Is éard atá i gceist le leideanna séimeantacha noda maidir le brí focal a fhéadtar a bhaint de thátal as noda sa phictiúr, sa téacs agus/nó eolas a bhí ag an bpáiste roimh ré.

Léirigh samplaí a úsáid le cur síos ar rud éigin
Léiriú samplaí a úsáid le cur síos ar rud éigin
Léirmhínigh eolas agus tuiscint a úsáid chun treochtaí a aithint agus teacht ar chonclúidí ó fhaisnéis a thugtar
Léirmhíniú eolas agus tuiscint a úsáid chun treochtaí a aithint agus teacht ar chonclúidí ó fhaisnéis a thugtar
Léirthuiscint a bheith ag... do... brí a aithint, tuiscint phraiticiúil a bheith aige do rud
Líofacht léitheoireachta ó bhéal

Is é atá i gceist le líofacht léitheoireachta ó bhéal an cumas a bhíonn ag léitheoirí léamh ó bhéal le luas, cruinneas agus gnéithe oiriúnacha prósóide amhail mothúchán, béim, tuinairde agus cur i bhfocail oiriúnach.

Litriú cumtha

Is téarma é litriú cumtha nó neaslitriú a úsáidtear nuair a úsáideann páistí a gcumasc féin litreacha chun focail a dhéanamh agus iad ag ceapadh téacsanna.

Luacháil (breithiúnas eiticiúil) sonraí a bhailiú agus a scrúdú chun breithiúnais agus breithmheas a dhéanamh; cur síos ar an gcaoi a dtacaíonn nó nach dtacaíonn fianaise le conclúid i bhfiosrúchán nó in imscrúdú; lochtanna sonraí i dtátail a aithint; breithiúnais a dhéanamh faoi smaointe, réitigh nó modhanna
Lucht léitheoireachta, féachana agus éisteachta

Is é an lucht léitheoireachta, féachana agus éisteachta an pobal léitheoirí, éisteoirí, amharcóirí a bhfuil an scríbhneoir, an dearthóir, an cainteoir ag díriú orthu.

Machnaigh rud a mheas chun ceartúchán nó feabhsúchán a dhéanamh
Managing my resources The learning outcomes in this element focus on developing students’ awareness, knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of personal finance, enterprise and economics
Meas cur síos ar phatrúin i sonraí; eolas agus tuiscint a úsáid chun patrúin a léirmhíniú; tuartha a dhéanamh agus iontaofacht a sheiceáil
Meas (cuimhnigh ar...) cur síos ar phatrúin i sonraí; eolas agus tuiscint a úsáid chun patrúin a léirmhíniú; tuartha a dhéanamh agus iontaofacht a sheiceáil
Meastóireacht a dhéanamh ar (sonraí) sonraí a bhailiú agus a scrúdú chun breithiúnais agus breithmheas a dhéanamh; cur síos ar an gcaoi a dtacaíonn nó nach dtacaíonn fianaise le conclúid i bhfiosrúchán nó in imscrúdú; lochtanna sonraí i dtátail a aithint; breithiúnais a dhéanamh faoi smaointe, réitigh nó modhanna
Measúnaigh (breithiúnas eiticiúil) fianaise a bhailiú agus a scrúdú chun breithiúnais agus breithmheas a dhéanamh; cur síos ar an gcaoi a dtacaíonn nó nach dtacaíonn fianaise le conclúid i bhfiosrúchán nó in imscrúdú; srianta fianaise i gconclúidí a aithint; breithiúnais a dhéanamh faoi smaointe, faoi réitigh nó faoi mhodhanna3
Measúnaigh (sonraí) sonraí a bhailiú agus a scrúdú chun breithiúnais agus breithmheas a dhéanamh; cur síos a dhéanamh ar an gcaoi a dtacaíonn nó nach dtacaíonn fianaise le conclúid i bhfiosrúchán nó in iniúchadh; srianta sonraí i gconclúidí a shainaithint; breithiúnais a dhéanamh faoi smaointe, faoi réitigh nó faoi mhodhanna
Measure quantify changes in systems by reading a measuring tool
Metalinguistic awareness Metalinguistic awareness refers to the ability to think about and reflect on language and how it is used both as a process and as an artifact and to understand that we can change language in different ways. As children’s metalinguistic awareness develops, they increasingly understand, for example that language may have both a literal meaning and an implied meaning.
Mínigh mionchuntas a thabhairt lena n‑áirítear fáthanna nó cúiseanna
Míniú mionchuntas a thabhairt lena n-áirítear fáthanna nó cúiseanna
Model generate a mathematical representation (e.g., number, graph, equation, geometric figure); diagrams; physical replicas for real world or mathematical objects; properties; actions or relationships
Moirféim

An t-aonad céille nó gramadaí is lú i dteanga ar bith. Ní gá gur focal í gach moirféim. Moirféim amháin atá san fhocal ‘mála’, mar shampla, ach dhá mhoirféim atá san fhocal ‘málaí’: ‘mála’ is ea moirféim amháin agus moirféim eile a chuireann an uimhir iolra in iúl is ea ‘í’. Ach eolas ar mhoirféimí a bheith ag daltaí bíonn slí acu le focail a léamh agus a litriú.

Monitor observe and check the progress of something over a period of time; keep under systematic review
Morpheme Morpheme is the smallest meaningful or grammatical unit in language. Morphemes are not necessarily the same as words. The word ‘cat’ has one morpheme, while the word ‘cats’ has two morphemes: ‘cat’ for the animal and ‘s’ to indicate that there is more than one. Morphemes are very useful in helping students work out how to read and spell words.
Multimodal texts Multimodal texts combine language with other systems for communication, such as print text, visual images, soundtrack and the spoken word.
Narrative text

Narrative texts are a type of oral or written discourse where the purpose is to tell a story or narrate an event or a sequence of events. Narrative text can be categorised as fiction or non-fiction.

Nascaigh
Nascaigh is ea focail a nascann ailt agus abairtí le chéile go loighciúil, bunaithe ar ghaol ama, cúis agus éifeacht, comparáid nó rud a chur leis. Nascann nascaigh smaointe le chéile agus taispeánann siad loighic an eolais. Acmhainní tábhachtacha is ea nascaigh chun téacsanna a chomhtháthú. Is féidir gaolta loighciúla a ghrúpáil mar seo a leanas:
  • am – chun am a léiriú nó smaointe a chur in ord (m.sh. an chéad, an dara, an chéad cheann eile)
  • cúis – chun cúis agus éifeacht a thaispeáint (m.sh. toisc, le haghaidh, mar sin)
  • eolas a chur leis – (m.sh. chomh maith leis sin, freisin, rud eile de, ina theannta sin)
  • comparáideach – (m.sh. de rogha air sin, mar mhalairt air sin)
  • coinníollach / faomhach – chun coinníoll a leagan síos nó rud a ghéilleadh (m.sh. mar sin féin, cé)
  • ag soiléiriú – (m.sh. déanta na fírinne, mar shampla)
Open questions Open questions are higher-order questions that require the respondent to think and reflect. These questions cannot be answered by a yes or a no. They require a more developed answer which takes account of the respondent’s own knowledge and/or feelings.
Oral reading fluency Reading fluency is the ability of readers to read orally with speed, accuracy and appropriate prosodic features such as expression, stress, pitch and suitable phrasing.
Organisation An organised group of people with a particular purpose, such as a company or a government department. It can be a for-profit or a non-profit organisation and can include everything from a small owner-operated company such as a family restaurant, to a multinational company
Organise to arrange; to systematise or methodise
Our economy

This strand enables students to understand the dynamic relationship between the local, national and international economic situation. It develops students’ ability to identify and understand basic economic concepts as they relate to personal finance, enterprise and the Irish economy

Outline to make a summary of the significant features of a subject
Paralinguistic skills

Paralinguistic skills include:

  • audibility
  • intonation
  • pitch
  • pause
  • emphasis
  • pace.
Personal Finance

This strand focuses on students developing a set of skills, knowledge and values that allows them to make informed decisions to effectively and responsibly manage their financial resources.

Personal finance

This strand focuses on students developing a set of skills, knowledge and values that allows them to make informed decisions to effectively and responsibly manage their financial resources.

Personal word banks Personal word banks are collections of words that a writer uses or needs that are related to personal interests and/or commonly misspelled. The words included in the personal word bank are not displayed in the classroom or easily located.
Phoneme

A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. The word it has two phonemes /i/ and /t/. The word ship has three phonemes /sh/, /i/, /p/.

Phonemic awareness Phonemic awareness is the insight that every spoken word comprises a sequence of phonemes. Because phonemes are the units of sound that are represented by the letters of an alphabet, an awareness of phonemes is key to understanding the logic of the alphabetic principle and thus to the learnability of phonics and spelling.
Phonological awareness Phonological awareness refers to an individual's awareness of the phonological structure, or sound structure, of words. It includes understandings about words, rhyme, syllables, onset and rime, and phonemes.
Plan to devise or project a method or a course of action
Plé athbhreithniú tomhaiste cothrom a thabhairt a chuimsíonn réimse argóintí, tosca, nó hipitéisí: ba chóir tuairimí nó tátail a léiriú go follasach agus tacú leo le fianaise chuí
Pleanáil modh a cheapadh nó cur chuige a cheapadh nó a bheartú
Pleanáil modh nó cur chuige a cheapadh nó a bheartú
Pléigh athbhreithniú tomhaiste cothrom a thabhairt a chuimsíonn réimse argóintí, tosca, nó hipitéisí: ba chóir tuairimí nó conclúidí a chur i láthair go soiléir agus tacú leo le fianaise chuí
Predict give an expected result of an  event; explain a new event based on observations or information using logical connections between pieces of information
Prepare make something ready for use or presentation
Present promote or propose an idea; deliver or illustrate evidence; show something for others to examine
Prionsabal aibítre

Aithníonn an prionsabal aibítre go n-úsáidtear litreacha agus teaglamaí (cnuasaigh) litreacha chun fuaimeanna teanga a chur in iúl atá bunaithe ar an ngaol idir litreacha scríofa, siombailí agus focail labhartha.

Produce to bring into existence by intellectual or creative ability
Próiseas scríbhneoireachta
Sa phróiseas scríbhneoireachta teagascann an múinteoir go soiléir conas bheith ag obair agus ag foghlaim go gníomhach mar scríbhneoirí. I measc na gcéimeanna sa phróiseas scríbhneoireachta áirítear:
  • pleanáil le haghaidh scríbhneoireachta trí thopaicí agus smaointe a roghnú leis an méid is lú cúnaimh
  • téacs a chumadh ag úsáid struchtúr eagraíochtúil cuí téacs
  • téacs a scríobhadh a athléamh chun seiceáil go bhfuil ciall leis agus go gcomhlíonann sé a chuspóir
  • an téacs a chur in eagar agus a leasú trí athscríobh chun sonraí a chur leis nó a bhaint uaidh d’fhonn an chiall atá leis a shoiléiriú
  • obair a chur in eagar níos mó arís mar fhreagairt ar aiseolas ó dhaoine eile.
Propose put forward a plan or suggestion for consideration
Rangaigh rudaí a chur i ngrúpaí bunaithe ar thréithe comónta
Rangú rudaí a ghrúpáil de réir tréithe comónta
Recognise identify facts, characteristics or concepts that are critical (relevant/appropriate) to the understanding of a situation, event, process or phenomenon
Recognise identify facts, characteristics or concepts that are critical (relevant/appropriate) to the understanding of a situation, event, process or phenomenon
Recommend put forward something with approval as being suitable for a particular purpose
Reflect to consider in order to correct or improve
Relate associate,  giving reasons
Research to inquire specifically, using involved and critical investigation
Review approval or dissent; to analyse results for the purpose of giving an opinion
Ríomh teacht ar fhreagra uimhriúil, ag taispeáint na gcéimeanna cuí san oibriú amach
Ríomh teacht ar fhreagra uimhriúil, ag taispeáint na gcéimeanna cuí san oibriú amach
Root words

A root word is a form of a word after all affixes and grammatical inflections have been removed e.g. door, run, sad, build, hair. Many other words can be created using root words:

  • inflected words: root + grammatical inflection e.g. doors, running
  • derived words: root + affix e.g. sadness, builder
  • compound words e.g. hairdresser.
Sainaithin patrúin, fíricí nó sonraí a aithint; freagra a sholáthar ó roinnt féidearthachtaí; fíoras nó gné shainiúil a aithint agus a lua go hachomair
Sainiú patrúin, fíricí nó sonraí a aithint; freagra a sholáthar ó roinnt féidearthachtaí; fíoras nó gné shainiúil a aithint agus a lua go hachomair
Samhaltaigh léiriú matamaiticiúil a ghiniúint (m.sh. uimhir, graf, cothromóid, fíor gheoiméadrach); léaráidí; macasamhlacha fisiceacha do réada an fhíorshaoil nó do réada matamaiticiúla; airíonna; gníomhartha nó coibhneasa
Samhaltú léiriú matamaiticiúil a ghiniúint (m. s. uimhir, graf, cothromóid, fíor gheoiméadrach); léaráidí; macasamhlacha fisiceacha do réada an fhíorshaoil nó do réada matamaiticiúla; airíonna; gníomhartha nó coibhneasa
Scileanna paraitheangeolaíocha
I measc na scileanna paraitheangeolaíocha, áirítear:
  • inchloisteacht
  • tuiníocht
  • tuinairde
  • sos
  • béim
  • luas.
Scileanna seachtheangeolaíocha
Áirítear i measc na scileanna seachtheangeolaíoch:
  • teagmháil oiriúnach súl a dhéanamh
  • comharthaíocht choirp
  • geáitsí agus gothaí gnúise agus comharthaíocht a úsáid mar is cuí.
Scrúdaigh argóint nó coincheap a mheas ar bhealach a nochtann toimhdí agus coibhneasa na saincheiste
Scrúdú argóint nó coincheap a bhreathnú ar shlí a nochtann toimhdí agus coibhneasa na saincheiste
Seánra
Cineál struchtúr d’abairtí ó bhéal nó d’abairtí scríofa iad seánraí a bhfuil gnásanna ag baint leo ar mhaithe le cuspóirí ar leith agus a bhfuil leagan amach áirithe orthu, mar aon le gnéithe teanga a bhaineann le sainréim teanga, m.sh. insint, faisnéiseach, argóint, leata agus ilseánra. Lena chur ar bhealach simplí, tagraíonn seánra do rogha foirmeacha scríbhneoireachta d’fhonn rudaí a athinsint, míniú a thabhairt, siamsaíocht a chur ar fáil, daoine a chur ar an eolas, orduithe a thabhairt, insint a dhéanamh, rudaí a chur ina luí ar dhaoine agus údar a thabhairt le tuairimí.
Segment

To split up a word into its individual phonemes in order to spell it, e.g. the word cat has three phonemes: /c/, /a/, /t/ and the word grew has three phonemes: /g/, /r/, /ew/.

Séimeantaic

Baineann séimeantaic le brí; cuirtear brí in iúl leis na gaolta idir focail.

Semantics and semantic cues Semantics is concerned with meaning; meaning is expressed by the relations between words. Semantic cues are clues to word meaning that can be gleaned using the clues in the picture, the text and/or prior knowledge.
Sense of voice Sense of voice refers to the development of the child’s own voice and self-expression (agency).
Slabhra (Cnuasach)

Tagraíonn slabhra nó cnuasach do dhá litir nó níos mó a dhéanann dhá (nó trí) fhuaim, mar shampla tá na chéad trí litir in ‘strus’ ina slabhra consan.

Social functions The social functions of language are those where language is used for the purpose of everyday social interaction such as greeting, expressing appreciation, expressing sympathy and concern, saying sorry and welcoming visitors with confidence.
Sound

The term ‘sound’ relates to the sound we make when we utter a letter or word, not to the letter in print. A letter may have more than one sound, such as the letter ‘a’ in was, a sound can be represented by more than one letter such as the sound /k/ in cat and walk. The word ship had three sounds /sh/, /i/, /p/, but has four letters ‘s’, ‘h’, ‘i’, ‘p’. Teachers should use the terms ‘sound’ and ‘letter’ accurately to help students clearly distinguish between the two items.

Spelling strategies

Phonetic and conventional spelling strategies can be used for unfamiliar words when creating texts.
These strategies include:

  • using knowledge of grapheme-phoneme correspondences
  • using syllabication
  • using visual memory
  • using common spelling strings and patterns
Stóir phearsanta focal

Is éard atá i gceist le stóir phearsanta focal bailiúcháin de na focail a úsáideann scríbhneoir nó a theastaíonn uaidh atá bainteach lena chuid suimeanna pearsanta agus/nó a dhéanann sé a litriú go mícheart go rialta. Cuimsíonn an stór pearsanta focal, focail nach mbíonn ar taispeáint sa seomra ranga agus nach mbíonn sé éasca teacht orthu.

Straitéisí aitheanta focal
Cuireann straitéisí aitheanta focal ar chumas páistí focail anaithnide a léamh agus dul i dtaithí ar fhocail dá leithéid a léamh gan stró de réir a chéile. I measc na straitéisí seo, tá:
  • gnéithe amhairc nó grafacha focail a úsáid
  • comhfhreagairtí idir graiféimí agus fóinéimí a úsáid
  • eolas ar sheichimh litreacha, ar phatrúin litrithe agus ar an mbaint idir focail.
Straitéisí foclóra
Cabhraíonn straitéisí foclóra chun brí focal agus frásaí neamhaithnide a oibriú amach nó a shoiléiriú, ina measc:
  • leideanna comhthéacs a úsáid
  • eolas ar fhréamhfhocail agus táthmhíreanna a úsáid
  • eolas ar fhrithchiallaigh, comhchiallaigh, comhainmneacha, agus homagraif a úsáid
  • breathnú ar fhoclóirí agus ar fhoinsí tagartha eile mar is cuí.
Straitéisí litrithe
Is féidir feidhm a bhaint as straitéisí litrithe foghraíochta agus as gnáthstraitéisí litrithe le haghaidh focail éagoiteanna agus téacsanna á gcruthú. Áirítear ar na straitéisí sin:
  • feidhm a bhaint as eolas ar chomhfhreagairtí idir graiféimí agus fóinéimí
  • feidhm a bhaint as siollú
  • feidhm a bhaint as amharc-chuimhne
  • feidhm a bhaint as slabhraí agus patrúin litrithe choitianta.
Straitéisí tuisceana
Straitéisí agus próisis a úsáideann léitheoirí chun ciall a bhaint as téacs iad straitéisí tuisceana. Ar na príomhstraitéisí tuisceana áirítear:
  • eolas roimh ré a thabhairt chun cuimhne agus a úsáid
  • rudaí a thuar
  • rudaí a shamhlú
  • ceangal a dhéanamh
  • ceisteanna a chur
  • soiléiriú a dhéanamh
  • tosaíocht a thabhairt do rudaí áirithe thar rudaí eile
  • tátal a bhaint as rud
  • míreanna eolais a chur le chéile chun mír eile a dhéanamh.
Strand The strand is the primary division of content in the curriculum specification.
Struchtúr eagraíochtúil téacs

Struchtúr an téacs a thugtar ar an tslí ina n-eagraítear eolas i gcineálacha éagsúla téacs, mar shampla teidil caibidlí, fotheidil, clár na n-ábhar, innéacsanna agus gluaiseanna, foramhairc, ailt tosaigh agus ailt deiridh, seicheamhú, abairtí topaice, tacsanomaíochtaí, cúis agus éifeacht. Is iad na roghanna a dhéantar i dtaca le struchtúr téacs agus gnéithe teanga a chinneann cineál an téacs agus an bhrí atá leis.

Suggest propose a solution, hypothesis or other possible answer
Sustainability A process of balancing the social, economic, and environmental systems that are in constant interaction for the well-being of individuals now and in the future. There are three core pillars of sustainability: the social, the environmental, and the economic (people, planet, and profit)
Sustainable development Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is a continuous, guided process of economic, environmental and social change aimed at promoting the well-being of citizens now and in the future
Synonyms

A synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word e.g. happy, joyful, elated.

Syntactic cues Syntactic cues are clues to word meaning that can be gleaned from knowledge of word order, sentence structure and word relationships.
Syntax

Syntax refers to the organisational rules specifying word order, sentence organisation and word relationships. Syntax specifies which word combinations are acceptable or grammatical, and which are not. The form or structure of a sentence is governed by the rules of syntax. These rules specify word, phrase, and clause order; sentence organisation; and the relationships between words, word classes, and other sentence elements.

Tabhair breac‑chuntas achoimre a dhéanamh ar ghnéithe suntasacha ábhair
Taighde a dhéanamh sainfhiosrú a dhéanamh, ag úsáid imscrúdú casta agus criticiúil
Táirg rud a thabhairt ar an saol trí chumas intleachtach nó cruthaitheach
Taispeáin rud a chruthú nó a dhéanamh soiléir trí réasúnaíocht nó le fianaise, rud a léiriú le samplaí nó le cur i bhfeidhm praiticiúil
Taispeáint a chruthú nó a dhéanamh soiléir trí réasúnaíocht nó trí fhianaise, a léiriú le samplaí nó le cur i bhfeidhm praiticiúil
Táthmhíreanna

Moirféimí is ea táthmhíreanna a cheanglaítear de fhréamhfhocal chun focal nua a dhéanamh m.sh. tóg+álaí, mí+shona nó chun foirm eile d’fhocal a dhéanamh m.sh. múinteoir+í, rith+ dh.

Téacs / Téacsanna

Is féidir téacsanna a thabhairt ar gach toradh ar úsáid teanga—ó bhéal, geáitsíocht, comharthaí, scríofa, físiúil, úsáid a bhaint as Córas Cumarsáide Malartaithe Pictiúr, nithe tagartha, Braille, tadhlach, leictreonach, digiteach, agus/nó ilmhódach. I dtéacsanna ilmhódacha bíonn meascán de chineálacha éagsúla cumarsáide, m.sh. téacs clóite, téacs digiteach, íomhánna amhairc, fuaim (m.sh. taibhiú nó imeacht) agus an focal labhartha.

Téacs insinte

Cineál dioscúrsa ó bhéal nó i scríbhinn is ea téacsanna insinte a bhfuil sé mar aidhm acu scéal a insint nó imeacht nó sraith imeachtaí a reic. Féadtar téacsanna insinte a rangú mar fhicsean nó mar neamhfhicsean.

Téacs léiritheach

Cineál dioscúrsa ó bhéal nó i scríbhinn is ea téacs léiritheach a bhfuil sé mar aidhm aige rud éigin a mhíniú, eolas a thabhairt faoi rud éigin nó cur síos a dhéanamh ar rud éigin.

Téamaí

I measc na dtéamaí don Ghaeilge tá: mé féin, sa bhaile, an scoil, bia, an teilifís, siopadóireacht, caitheamh aimsire, éadaí, an aimsir agus ócáidí speisialta. Is féidir leis an múinteoir go leor topaicí a roghnú as na téamaí. D’fhéadfaí na topaicí seo a leathnú chun ábhar atá spéisiúil don pháiste a chur san áireamh freisin.

Teanga dioscúrsa
I ndioscúrsa teastaíonn méid áirithe ráite ón bpáiste chun struchtúir theangeolaíocha a chruthú, struchtúir ar nós insintí, cuntais fhíriciúla, argóintí, mínithe nó dhá cheann nó níos mó díobh sin in éineacht. Chuige sin caithfidh an páiste dul níos faide ná an abairt bhunúsach agus abairtí a chur le chéile chun cuntas a thabhairt, cuntas a bheidh sothuigthe ó thaobh eagar na céille agus comhtháite ó thaobh an leanúnachais idir abairtí. Chun dul i mbun dioscúrsa, teastaíonn foclóir a bhaineann le réimse ar leith agus atá inniúil ar an ábhar mar aon leis an eolas gramadaí is gá chun abairtí a chumadh mar gheall ar an ábhar i dtrácht.
Teanga gan chomhthéacs

Tugtar sainmhíniú ar an teanga gan chomhthéacs mar theanga atá saor ó chomhthéacs. Níl sí bunaithe in aon chomhthéacs láithreach ama ná cúinse, agus níl sí spleách ar aon bhreathnú ná ar aon eispéireas  siceach, láithreach. Tá úsáid na teanga gan chomhthéacs ríthábhachtach d’fhoghlaim páistí ar leibhéil éagsúla. Baintear úsáid aisti chun faisnéis nua a chruthú agus a chur in iúl do dhaoine eile nach bhfuil an fhaisnéis chúlra chéanna acu leis an gcainteoir. Tá na téarmaí ‘teanga gan chomhthéacs’ agus ‘stíl teanga liteartha’ cosúil lena chéile toisc go dtagraíonn siad araon do theanga atá eagraithe, follasach agus scoite amach.

Téarmaíocht na leabhar

Is é atá i dtéarmaíocht na leabhar an foclóir a bhaineann le leabhair, m.sh. údar, blurba, maisitheoir, clár na n-ábhar, gluais, caibidil, foilsitheoir, srl.

Text organisation Text organisation is the way information is organised in different types of texts for example, chapter headings, sub headings, table of contents, indexes and glossaries, overviews, introductory and concluding paragraphs, sequencing, topic sentences, taxonomies, cause and effect. Choices in text structures and language features together define a text type and shape its meaning.
Text organisational structure

Text structure is the way that information is organised in different types of texts for example, chapter headings, sub-headings, table of contents, indexes and glossaries, overviews, introductory and concluding paragraphs, sequencing, topic sentences, taxonomies, cause and effect. Choices in text structures and language features together define a text type and shape its meaning. .

Texts

All products of language use—oral, gesture, sign, written, visual, using Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), objects of reference, Braille, tactile, electronic, digital and/or multimodal—can be described as texts. Multimodal texts include the combination of a variety of forms of communication such as print text, digital text, visual images, audio (e.g., a performance or event) and spoken word. In this definition, 'multimodal' is not synonymous with 'digital'.

Themes

Among the themes for Irish are; myself, at home, school, food, television, shopping, pastimes, clothes, the weather and special occasions. The teacher can select lots of topics from the themes. These topics could be extended to also include subjects that the child finds interesting.

Tomhais athruithe i gcórais a chainníochtú (a mheas) trí uirlis tomhais a léamh
Tomhas athruithe i gcórais a chainníochtú (a mheas) trí uirlis tomhais a léamh
Tuiscint ciall ruda a aithint; tuiscint phraiticiúil a bheith agat ar rud
Unconstrained skills The range of language skills that we develop over a lifetime.
Understand have and apply a well-organised body of knowledge
Úsáid eolas nó rialacha a chur i bhfeidhm chun teoiric a chur i ngníomh
Úsáid eolas nó rialacha a chur i bhfeidhm chun teoiric a chur i ngníomh
Use apply knowledge or rules to put theory into practice
Use apply knowledge or rules to put theory into practice
Using skills for business This element broadens students’ understanding by enabling them to proactively apply their knowledge and skills to their own lives and in the dynamic business environment
Verify give evidence to support the truth of a statement
Verify give evidence to support the truth of a statement
Vocabulary development Children’s oral vocabulary and reading vocabulary develop in terms of increasing complexity from concrete to abstract, with regard to the frequency of word use, the complexity of meaning, the depth of word knowledge and the changes that occur through the processes of word formation
Vocabulary strategies

Vocabulary strategies assist to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown words and phrases, including:

  • using context clues
  • using knowledge of root words and affixes
  • using knowledge of antonyms, synonyms, homonyms, and homographs 
  • consulting dictionaries and other references as appropriate.
Word identification strategies

Word identification strategies allow children to read unknown words with increasing automaticity. These strategies include:

  • use of the visual or graphic features of a word
  • use of grapheme-phoneme correspondences
  • use of knowledge of letter sequences, spelling patterns and associations between words.
Writing process

The writing process involves the teacher explicitly teaching children how to work and learn actively as writers. Steps in the writing process include:

  • plan for writing by selecting topics and ideas with minimal help
  • compose text using appropriate text organisational structure
  • re-read text written to check it makes sense and meets its purpose
  • edit and modify the text by rewriting to add or delete details to clarify meaning
  • edit written work further in response to feedback from others.